Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.



No description

Alek Guzowski

on 18 January 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of POLSKA

HISTORY OF POLAND BEGINNIG OF POLAND Poland was founded in the year 966, when the Polish ruler - Mieszko I, was baptized. This date is considered the historical beginning of Poland. The Congress of Gniezno was an ally meeting between the Polish duke Bolesław I Chrobry and Emperor Otto III, which took place at Gniezno on March 11, 1000. Scholars disagree over the details of the decisions made at the convention, especially whether the ruler of Poland was pledged the king's crown or not. After congress Bolesław I Chrobry became the king. First polish king- Bolesław I Chrobry The intervention in the Kievan succession crisis of 1015–1019 by the Polish ruler Bolesław Chrobry was an episode in the struggle between Sviatopolk I Vladimirovich ("the Accursed") and his brother Yaroslav ("the Wise") for the rulership of Kiev and Kievan Rus'. It occurred when Sviatopolk's father-in-law Bolesław, ruler of Poland, intervened on Sviatopolk's behalf. INTERVENTION IN KIEV CONGRESS OF GNIEZNO TEUTONIC KNIGHTS IN POLAND In 1226 Teutonic knights arrived to Poland for evangelize the Prus's and the Jaćwing's tribes, bordering with Poland but they started the war with Poland. Teutonic Knight KING KAZIMIERZ GREAT In 1330 the Polish king was Kazimierz. Kazimierz is the only Polish king who both received and kept the title of the Great in Polish history (Bolesław I Chrobry is also called the Great, but his title Chrobry (Valiant) is now more common). When he received the crown, and the kingship was in danger, as even his neighbours did not recognise his title and instead called him "king of Kraków". The economy was ruined, and the country was depopulated and exhausted by war. Upon his death, he left a country doubled in size (mostly through the addition of land in today's Ukraine, then the Duchy of Halicz), prosperous, wealthy and with great prospects for the future. Although he is depicted as a peaceful king in children's books, he in fact waged many victorious wars and was getting ready for others just before he died. In 1364 king created first polish university - Cracow Academy. King Kazimierz Great Polish king in Kiev WŁADYSŁAW JAGIEŁŁO Jagiełło was the last pagan ruler of medieval Lithuania. After he became King of Poland, as a result of Union of Krewo, the newly formed Polish-Lithuanian union confronted the growing power of the Teutonic Knights. The allied victory at the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, followed by the Peace of Toruń (1411), secured the Polish and Lithuanian borders and marked the emergence of the Polish–Lithuanian alliance as a significant force in Europe. The reign of Władysław II Jagiełło extended Polish frontiers and is often considered the beginning of Poland's Golden Age. battle of Grunwald MIKOŁAJ KOPERNIK Mikołaj Kopernik (Nicolaus Copernicus) (19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance astronomer and the first person to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology which displaced the Earth from the center of the universe. Copernicus' epochal book, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), published just before his death in 1543, is often regarded as the starting point of modern astronomy and the defining epiphany that began the scientific revolution. His heliocentric model, with the Sun at the center of the universe, demonstrated that the observed motions of celestial objects can be explained without putting Earth at rest in the center of the universe. His work stimulated further scientific investigations, becoming a landmark in the history of science that is often referred to as the Copernican Revolution. Among the great polymaths of the Renaissance, Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, jurist with a doctorate in law, physician, polyglot, classics scholar, translator, artist, Catholic cleric, governor, diplomat and economist. The early modern era of Polish history follows the late Middle Ages. Historians refer by the early modern name to the period beginning from approximately 1500 AD and lasting to around 1800 AD. The Nihil novi act adopted by the Poles in 1505 transferred legislative power from the king to the Diet. This event marked the beginning of the period known as "Nobles' Democracy" or "Nobles' Commonwealth" (Rzeczpospolita szlachecka). The state was ruled by the "free and equal" Polish nobility or gentry , however in intense and destabilizing at times competition with the Jagiellon and then elective kings. NOBLES' DEMOCRACY In the middle of the 17th century, the nobles' democracy, subjected to devastating wars, falling into internal disorder and then anarchy, gradually declined, making the once powerful Commonwealth vulnerable to foreign intervention. From 1648, the Cossack Uprising engulfed the south and east, and was soon followed by a Swedish invasion, which raged through core Polish lands. Warfare with the Cossacks and Russia left Ukraine divided, with the eastern part, lost by the Commonwealth, becoming the Tsardom's dependency. John III Sobieski, fighting protracted wars with the Ottoman Empire, revived the Commonwealth's military might once more, in process helping decisively in 1683 to deliver Vienna from a Turkish onslaught. 17th CENTURY Polish Hussars Initially the first units of Polish hussars in the Kingdom of Poland were formed in 1500. A small amount of Serbian mercenaries was recruited and become Polish Commonwealth citizens. Polish hussars was best cavlary in all Europe. They was invincible. Polish hussars had characteristic wings, attached to a saddle or armor. Polish Heavy hussars of the Polish Commonwealth were far more manoeuvrable than the heavily armoured lancers previously employed, the hussars proved vital to the Polish Commonwealth victories at Orsza (1514) and Obertyn (1531). Later proven one of the greatest victories in Europe lead by the king of Poland and grand duke of Lithuania the saver of Europe Jan III Sobieski victor of the Battle of Vienna. polish hussar The Partitions of Poland or Partitions of the Polish Commonwealth – three partitions which took place in the second half of the 18th century and ended the existence of the Polish Commonwealth , resulting in the elimination of sovereign Poland for 123 years. The partitions were perpetrated by the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia and Habsburg Austria, which divided up the Polish lands among themselves progressively in the process of territorial seizures. The Partitions of Poland Allegory of the 1st partition of Poland crop polish hussar polish hussars in attack CONSTITUTION OF 3th MAY The Constitution of May 3, 1791 was drafted between October 6, 1788, and May 3, 1791, when it was adopted as a "Government Act" by the Great Parliament of the Polish Commonwealth . The document was designed to redress political defects of the Polish Commonwealth; the system of "Golden Liberty" had conferred disproportionate rights on the nobility, and over time had corrupted politics. Its adoption was preceded by a period of agitation for, and gradual introduction of, reforms, beginning with the Convocation Parliament of 1764 and the election of Stanisław August Poniatowski as the Commonwealth's last king, and culminating in legislation adopted by the Great Parliament. Constitution of 3th May UPRISINGS In 18th and 19th century in Poland there were some uprings :
-January Uprising in Congress Poland 1863-1864
-November Uprising 1830–31
-Kościuszko Uprising 1794 Battle of Racławice - Kościuszko Uprising 1794 FRYDERYK CHOPIN Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin,(1 March or 22 February 1810 – 17 October 1849) was the Polish composer and virtuoso pianist. He is widely considered one of the greatest Romantic composers in world. Chopin was born in Żelazowa Wola, a village in the then Duchy of Warsaw. A renowned child-prodigy pianist and composer, he grew up in Warsaw and completed his music education there; he composed many mature works in Warsaw. He had slip away from Poland. Before leaving Poland in 1830 at age 20, shortly before the November 1830 Uprising. POLISH INDEPENDENCE The 11th listopada 1918 Poland retrieved independence :

-forward by the Council of Regency of military power (which is part of the sovereign power of the state) Jozef Pilsudski. Pilsudski is Supreme Commander of the Polish Army;

-Pilsudski after negotiations with the German Solider's Central Council, the German troops began to withdraw from the Polish Kingdom;

-disarm the German garrison stationed night in Warsaw; -take power in Poznan by a Pole, Jarogniew Drwęskiego. Józef Piłsudski BATTLE OF WARSAW The Battle of Warsaw sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula river, was the decisive battle of the Polish–Soviet War. That war began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga resulted in the end of the hostilities between Poland and Russia in 1921. The battle was fought from August 12–25, 1920 as Red Army forces commanded by Mikhail Tukhachevsky approached the Polish capital of Warsaw and the nearby Modlin Fortress. On August 16, Polish forces commanded by Józef Piłsudski counterattacked from the south, disrupting the enemy's offensive, forcing the Russian forces into a disorganised withdrawal eastward and behind the Neman River. Estimated Russian losses were 10,000 killed, 500 missing, 30,000 wounded, and 66,000 taken prisoner, compared with Polish losses of some 4,500 killed, 10,000 missing, and 22,000 wounded. Before the Polish victory at the Vistula, both the Bolsheviks and the majority of foreign experts considered Poland to be on the verge of defeat. The stunning, reversal and unexpected Polish victory crippled the Red Army. In Vladimir Lenin's words, the Bolsheviks "suffered an enormous defeat". In the following months, several more Polish follow-up victories saved Poland's independence and led to a peace treaty with Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine later that year, securing the Polish state's eastern frontiers for the next twenty years. Miracle at the Wisła stopped the attack of the comunism on west Europe and all world. polish cavlary in Battle of Warsaw BATTLES IN 1939 KATYŃ The Katyn massacre,was a mass execution of Polish nationals carried out by the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), the Soviet secret police, in April and May 1940. The massacre was prompted by Lavrentiy Beria's proposal to execute all members of the Polish Officer Corps, dated 5 March 1940. This official document was approved and signed by the Soviet Political Office, including its leader, Joseph Stalin. The number of victims is estimated at about 22,000, with 21,768 being a lower bound. The victims were murdered in the Katyn Forest in Russia, the Kalinin and Kharkiv prisons and elsewhere. Of the total killed, about 8,000 were officers taken prisoner during the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland, another 6,000 were police officers, with the rest being Polish intelligentsia arrested for allegedly being "intelligence agents, gendarmes, landowners, factory owners, lawyers, officials and priests." CURSED SOLIDERS
The cursed soldiers (that is, "accursed soldiers" or "damned soldiers"- is a name applied to a variety of Polish resistance movements formed in the later stages of World War II and afterwards. Created by some members of the Polish Secret State, these clandestine organizations continued their armed struggle against the Stalinist government of Poland well into the 1950s. The guerrilla warfare included an array of military attacks launched against the new communist prisons as well as MBP state security offices, detention facilities for political prisoners, and concentration camps set up across the country. Most of the Polish anti-communist groups ceased to exist in the late 1940s or 1950s, hunted down by MBP security services and NKVD assassination squads. However, the last known 'cursed soldier', Józef Franczak, was killed in an ambush as late as 1963, almost 20 years after the Soviet take-over of Poland. SOLIDARNOŚC "Solidarność" is a Polish trade union federation that emerged on 31 August 1980 at the Gdańsk Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa. It was the first non–communist party-controlled trade union in a Warsaw Pact country. Solidarity reached 9.5 million members before its September 1981 Congress (up to 10 millions) that constituted 1/3 of the total working age population of Poland. In the 1980s, Solidarity was a broad anti-bureaucratic social movement, using the methods of civil resistance to advance the causes of workers' rights and social change. The government attempted to destroy the union during the period of martial law in the early 1980s and several years of political repression, but in the end it was forced to negotiate with the union. The Round Table Talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed and in December 1990 Wałęsa was elected President of Poland. Since then it has become a more traditional, liberal trade union. the logo of Solidarność IN 2004 POLAND JOINED TO UNITED EUROPE Mikołaj Kopernik The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War in Poland and the Poland Campaign (German: Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss (Case White) in Germany, was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, while the Soviet invasion commenced on 17 September 1939 following the Molotov-Tōgō agreement which terminated the Nomonhan incident on 16 September 1939. The campaign ended on 6 October 1939 with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland. The results of the election in January 1947 in Poland, which in accordance with the Yalta conference had a legitimacy of power in Poland had been rigged by the police apparatus (Ministry of Public Security), subordinated PPR, with the direct participation of the NKVD. Announced this "winning" the election results so. Democratic opposition bloc against the PSL was the formal legitimacy of authority PPR and its successors in Poland in the light of international law. THE SOCOND WAR
Full transcript