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Transcript of POLSKA
-January Uprising in Congress Poland 1863-1864
-November Uprising 1830–31
-Kościuszko Uprising 1794 Battle of Racławice - Kościuszko Uprising 1794 FRYDERYK CHOPIN Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin,(1 March or 22 February 1810 – 17 October 1849) was the Polish composer and virtuoso pianist. He is widely considered one of the greatest Romantic composers in world. Chopin was born in Żelazowa Wola, a village in the then Duchy of Warsaw. A renowned child-prodigy pianist and composer, he grew up in Warsaw and completed his music education there; he composed many mature works in Warsaw. He had slip away from Poland. Before leaving Poland in 1830 at age 20, shortly before the November 1830 Uprising. POLISH INDEPENDENCE The 11th listopada 1918 Poland retrieved independence :
-forward by the Council of Regency of military power (which is part of the sovereign power of the state) Jozef Pilsudski. Pilsudski is Supreme Commander of the Polish Army;
-Pilsudski after negotiations with the German Solider's Central Council, the German troops began to withdraw from the Polish Kingdom;
-disarm the German garrison stationed night in Warsaw; -take power in Poznan by a Pole, Jarogniew Drwęskiego. Józef Piłsudski BATTLE OF WARSAW The Battle of Warsaw sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula river, was the decisive battle of the Polish–Soviet War. That war began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga resulted in the end of the hostilities between Poland and Russia in 1921. The battle was fought from August 12–25, 1920 as Red Army forces commanded by Mikhail Tukhachevsky approached the Polish capital of Warsaw and the nearby Modlin Fortress. On August 16, Polish forces commanded by Józef Piłsudski counterattacked from the south, disrupting the enemy's offensive, forcing the Russian forces into a disorganised withdrawal eastward and behind the Neman River. Estimated Russian losses were 10,000 killed, 500 missing, 30,000 wounded, and 66,000 taken prisoner, compared with Polish losses of some 4,500 killed, 10,000 missing, and 22,000 wounded. Before the Polish victory at the Vistula, both the Bolsheviks and the majority of foreign experts considered Poland to be on the verge of defeat. The stunning, reversal and unexpected Polish victory crippled the Red Army. In Vladimir Lenin's words, the Bolsheviks "suffered an enormous defeat". In the following months, several more Polish follow-up victories saved Poland's independence and led to a peace treaty with Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine later that year, securing the Polish state's eastern frontiers for the next twenty years. Miracle at the Wisła stopped the attack of the comunism on west Europe and all world. polish cavlary in Battle of Warsaw BATTLES IN 1939 KATYŃ The Katyn massacre,was a mass execution of Polish nationals carried out by the People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD), the Soviet secret police, in April and May 1940. The massacre was prompted by Lavrentiy Beria's proposal to execute all members of the Polish Officer Corps, dated 5 March 1940. This official document was approved and signed by the Soviet Political Office, including its leader, Joseph Stalin. The number of victims is estimated at about 22,000, with 21,768 being a lower bound. The victims were murdered in the Katyn Forest in Russia, the Kalinin and Kharkiv prisons and elsewhere. Of the total killed, about 8,000 were officers taken prisoner during the 1939 Soviet invasion of Poland, another 6,000 were police officers, with the rest being Polish intelligentsia arrested for allegedly being "intelligence agents, gendarmes, landowners, factory owners, lawyers, officials and priests." CURSED SOLIDERS
The cursed soldiers (that is, "accursed soldiers" or "damned soldiers"- is a name applied to a variety of Polish resistance movements formed in the later stages of World War II and afterwards. Created by some members of the Polish Secret State, these clandestine organizations continued their armed struggle against the Stalinist government of Poland well into the 1950s. The guerrilla warfare included an array of military attacks launched against the new communist prisons as well as MBP state security offices, detention facilities for political prisoners, and concentration camps set up across the country. Most of the Polish anti-communist groups ceased to exist in the late 1940s or 1950s, hunted down by MBP security services and NKVD assassination squads. However, the last known 'cursed soldier', Józef Franczak, was killed in an ambush as late as 1963, almost 20 years after the Soviet take-over of Poland. SOLIDARNOŚC "Solidarność" is a Polish trade union federation that emerged on 31 August 1980 at the Gdańsk Shipyard under the leadership of Lech Wałęsa. It was the first non–communist party-controlled trade union in a Warsaw Pact country. Solidarity reached 9.5 million members before its September 1981 Congress (up to 10 millions) that constituted 1/3 of the total working age population of Poland. In the 1980s, Solidarity was a broad anti-bureaucratic social movement, using the methods of civil resistance to advance the causes of workers' rights and social change. The government attempted to destroy the union during the period of martial law in the early 1980s and several years of political repression, but in the end it was forced to negotiate with the union. The Round Table Talks between the government and the Solidarity-led opposition led to semi-free elections in 1989. By the end of August a Solidarity-led coalition government was formed and in December 1990 Wałęsa was elected President of Poland. Since then it has become a more traditional, liberal trade union. the logo of Solidarność IN 2004 POLAND JOINED TO UNITED EUROPE Mikołaj Kopernik The Invasion of Poland, also known as the September Campaign or 1939 Defensive War in Poland and the Poland Campaign (German: Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss (Case White) in Germany, was an invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II in Europe. The German invasion began on 1 September 1939, one week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, while the Soviet invasion commenced on 17 September 1939 following the Molotov-Tōgō agreement which terminated the Nomonhan incident on 16 September 1939. The campaign ended on 6 October 1939 with Germany and the Soviet Union dividing and annexing the whole of Poland. The results of the election in January 1947 in Poland, which in accordance with the Yalta conference had a legitimacy of power in Poland had been rigged by the police apparatus (Ministry of Public Security), subordinated PPR, with the direct participation of the NKVD. Announced this "winning" the election results so. Democratic opposition bloc against the PSL was the formal legitimacy of authority PPR and its successors in Poland in the light of international law. THE SOCOND WAR