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6th Grade History Middle-Ages

SOL 9
by

marjorie arismendi

on 27 May 2016

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Transcript of 6th Grade History Middle-Ages

Middle Ages or Medieval Ages
476-1400
After Rome fell in 476 C.E. to Germanic tribes (Ostrogoths) where did people migrate to?
I can't read
And I can't write
400-600 C.E.
Roman Catholic Church
Clovis
Clovis becomes king of a Frankish tribe
Took over other tribes and more land
Becomes a Christian and receives support from the church
He and his successors are called Merovingians

466-511 CE
First Ruler of the Franks
Charles Martel “The Hammer”
- 732 AD: responsible for defeating the Moors
in the Battle of Tours with the use of a Calvary


Pepin III “The Short”
-Charles Martel’s son
-751 AD: made King of the Franks
-Carolingians line of rulers begins
-The Donation of Pepin: Pope sought his help against the Lombards. Pepin III and the Franks defeated them and gave the land around Rome to the Pope. This created the Papal States
714- 768 CE
Charlemagne
742-814
He was Pepin III’s son
800 AD: Pope crowned him the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
Charlemagne appointed 350 counts to oversee the counties.
He also was an advocate for education
After his death his grandsons split the kingdom three ways in the Treaty of Verdun

How did Charlemagne revive the idea of the Roman Empire?

The alliance between Frankish kings and the church reestablished Roman culture in Western Europe.
Events of the Age of Charlemagne

• Franks emerged as a force in Western Europe.
• Power of the church was established in
political life.
• Roman culture was revived.

Achievements of Charlemagne
Holy Roman Empire
Viking 700-1000 CE
Vikings Raided England
Angles and Saxons
Feudalism is a political system of government based on the granting of land. ( Political Structure of the Middle Ages)
The Manorial system was part of Medieval feudalism. (Economic Structure of the Middle Ages)
The system provided a rigid class structure and self- sufficient manors.

After the death of Charlemagne, organized government disappeared
Europe became ruled by independent leaders
The decline of Roman influence in Western Europe
invasions of barbarian tribes left people with little protection, so they entered into feudal agreements with land-holding lords who promised them protection.

What led to the Feudal System?
Nobles
Granted land to a lesser noble while retaining ownership
This allowed the lesser noble the ability to maintain their household
The grant of the land was called a fief
The person who received the land was called a vassal
Vassals could further divide the land and become a lord

The system cont…
The fiefs became hereditary
Primogeniture is the system of inheritance from father to eldest son
Essentially, every landholder was a vassal to the King
But, the King only controlled those living on his feudal lands

Rights of Women
 Women had limited property rights
Woman may have fiefs in her dowry
With marriage, her husband gained control of the dowry

Self-sufficiency
Manors were forced to be self sufficient
They produced everything they needed
Items like iron, salt, wood, wine, and other manufactured goods were purchased
Land of the manor was shared by a lord and several peasant families
About one-third of land was kept for the lord, while the rest was farmed by the peasants
Manor Villages
Peasants gave the lord some of their crops and helped farm his land
They also paid many taxes
Most manor villages were located along a stream or a river
Two of the three fields were cultivated, while the other was fallow to regain its fertility

The Life of a Peasant
Spent long hours in the fields
Most serfs could not leave the land without the permission of the lord
Could not hunt on the lord’s property or afford to raise their own animals, so they rarely ate meat
Life expectancy was very short because of diet, warfare, disease, and starvation

Nobles
The upper class of the Middle ages did not live in luxury
Castles were bases for the lord to enforce authority and protect the countryside
Castles built on hills
Moats were built around Castles on flat land
These protected it and drawbridges allowed access to castle over the flooded moats
A “keep” was the main building of the castle and was used as a storeroom, workshop, and lord’s living quarters
Men acquired land through marriage

Chivalry
Chivalry: a code of conduct
Dictated knights’ behavior toward others
Chivalry comes from the French word cheval,
meaning horse, because knights were mounted soldiers
Knights were expected to be courageous in battle and fight fairly
Also, be loyal, treat his conquered foes gallantly, and be courteous to women and the less powerful

How do I become a Knight?
Knights had to belong to a noble class and pass two stages of training
Stage 1: age of seven when a boy would be a knight’s page, or attendant
Stage 2: knight’s assistant, or squire
He would take care of the knight’s horse, armor, and weapons

During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholic church grew in importance after the decline of the Western Roman Empire.
The Pope anointed the Emperors, missionaries carried Christianity to the Germanic tribes, and the Church served the social, political, and religious needs of the people.
The medieval church had enormous political power. The church filled all needs for leadership by performing functions of modern government. By the 1100s, the church was one of Europe’s leading landowners.

Archbishops
Parish Priest:
Lowest rank in the church hierarchy
Responsible for the moral and spiritual life of the community
They could perform

5 sacraments
: baptism, Holy Communion, penance, matrimony, and the anointing of the sick and dying

Poor and sick
Penance
Marriage
Bishops:
Managed a group of parishes called a diocese.
Could perform the last two sacraments: confirmation and the taking of holy orders
Appointed parish priest and managed church property
The King or powerful nobles controlled the selection of bishops
Many bishops were also feudal lords or vassals

diocese
The church had its own courts and law code:
Cannon Law
Members of clergy could be excommunicated
Interdicts
could be issued which closed all churches within a region
The church had power to tax through
tithes
, one-tenth of a Christian’s income
It also received income from its own land
The family was considered a sacred institution and divorce was not allowed

The church’s wealth and influence lead to problems
Lay investiture
: nobles appoint a friend/relative to be bishop or abbot
Simony:
buying of high position within the church hierarchy
Religious groups and tactics dedicated to church reform
St. Francis of Assisi: order of Franciscans
St. Dominic: order of the Dominicans
Members of these two orders were called friars
They lived and preached among the people
Inquisition
: search for heretics

Chapter 14 Warm-ups
1. Middle Ages -the period between the fall of
Rome and the Renaissance when
there was little education
- known as the medieval period

2. 1400 AD -the end of the Middle Ages
-the Beginning of the Renaissance

3. Clergy - religious leaders during the
Middle Ages
The Raise & Fall of the Roman Empire
4. friar -means "brother"
- a traveling preacher who lived among the people

5. monks -spent hours copying scripture
-had little contact with outside world

6. monastery - a large secluded dwelling
where monks live & work
7. pope -served as the patriarch of the church
- directed the activities of the clergy

8. priest -preserved & developed many
church doctrines
-taught that people couldn't receive God's
grace without the Priest

9. sacrament - religious ceremony of Roman Catholic
Church, believed to give grace for salvation

10. baptism - the Roman Catholic Church teaches that a
person gains salvation through baptism
Feudal Pyramid of Power
11. Pepin the Short -made an alliance with the Roman
Church
- gave part of his conquered lands
to the church

12. Charles Martel -defeated the Muslim invaders at Tours
-Formed the Carolingian Empire

13. Charlemagne - crowned by the pope on Christmas day
- expanded learning
- extended Frankish empire

14. Clovis - first king of the Fanks
- conquered the ast of the Romans in Gaul
15. manor -the center of daily life in the Middle Ages

16. lord - the ruler of the manor
- serfs paid rent and worked part-time for him

17. page - fist step in becoming a knight
- began at age 7

18. knight -a squire became a knight at 21 after
proving himself capable

19. chivalry - code of conduct that included generosity,
loyalty, faithfulness to the Roman Church, skill
and bravery in battle, protective of women.

20. coat of arms - the emblem a knight could be identified by in battle

21. gatehouse - a large stronghold in the castle wall

22. moat -a wide water filled trench surrounding the castle

23. drawbridge -a feature of a castle that can be raiwed or lowed
to prevent or allow passage

24. keep - a castle tower where the lord and his family
lived

25. writ - a royal order

26. William of Normandy -noble who claimed the trown of England after
the Battle of Hastings
27. Harold Godwinson - noble claiming the English thrown who was
killed at the Battle of Hastings

28. Henry II -king who developed England's legal system

29. Magna Carta - means "Great Charter"
-limited the king's power
- guaranteed certain rights to the people

30. John -king who signed the Magna Carta
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