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U.S. History Unit Organizer - Imperialism
Transcript of U.S. History Unit Organizer - Imperialism
Room # / 2012-2013 Industrialization Imperialism The Great Depression World War I Vietnam World War II Unit 9 Civil Rights Movement Critical Concepts: History People in Societies Social Studies Skills and Methods Government Geography Citizenship Rights and Responsibilities 10th Grade Social Studies
(OGT Prep) Threats against
world peace War in Europe The Holocaust United States
joins the war Economics is about... American actions in the first world war and how the United States developed into a world power is about... Main causes
of WWI U.S. Neutrality Reasons the U.S. entered WWI How the U.S. mobilized for war is about... the causes and consequences of major political, economic and social developments of the 1930s is about... The Great
Depression Effects of the Great Depression The New Deal is about... how each conflict influenced United States foreign policy. is about... Under Construction Under Construction Under Construction Under Construction is about... the development of the United States as a world power is about... Reasons for U.S. Imperialism U.S. and China Panama Canal 3 Presidents
3 Imperialist Policies is about... the origins, major developments, controversies and consequences of the Civil Rights movement in the United States is about... Under Construction Under Construction Under Construction Under Construction is about... the impact of the United States participation in the Vietnam War is about... Under Construction Under Construction Under Construction Under Construction is about... Under Construction is about... Under Construction Under Construction Under Construction Under Construction is about... how advances in the workplace and production of goods affected the United States in the 19th and early 20th centuries is about... General effects of Industrialization Impact on modern corporations Labor Unions Populism
Progressivism is about... Spanish-American War Progressivism Populism Impact of WWI
on the U.S. European
Campaign The Home
Front Industrialization Vocabulary
Scabs 1860 Terms and Names
Alfred T. Mahan
Sanford P. Dole
San Juan Hill Immigration and Urbanization Immigration/Urbanization/Populism/Progressivism Vocabulary
Suffrage 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Industrialization Imperialism World War I The Great Depression World War II Korean War / Cold War Civil Rights Movement Vietnam Unit 9 http://bit.ly/mrcarter Changes in work and the
workplace Immigration and
Child Labor Modernization of Agriculture Urbanization Emergence of a
Middle Class Laissez Faire Standard of
living Unregulated working
conditions and Laissez faire policies Unions Organize Resistance to organized labor Effects of immigration Effects of urbanization Desire for
military strength Thirst for new markets Belief in cultural superiority Cuban rebellion Headline wars Phillipines Caribbean Treaty of Paris Results of the war Open Door Notes Boxer Rebellion The American beliefs about the industrial capitalist economy Acquiring the
land Construction The Roosevelt Corollary "Big Stick" Policy - use military force to keep European influences out of Latin America.
Military force = the Big Stick
Roosevelt Corollary in effect - USE FORCE!! Dollar Diplomacy - Using economic power as an influence.
Use U.S. money to get results rather than military force.
Replace European loans to Latin America with American Loans - BRIBE 'EM!! Moral Diplomacy - Instituting Democratic governments, not using American dollars.
Use the military to put down rebellions and end European influence.
Provide a constitutional government in Latin America.
Will not recognize any governments who are oppressive, not democratic or hostile toward U.S. interests. Wilson: Taft: Roosevelt: Nationalism Imperialism Militarism Formation of
alliances nationalism: a devotion to the interests and culture of one's nation. Competition grew between Germany and France/Britain for colonial prowess. militarism: the development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy. Triple Entente / Allies -
Russia Triple Alliance / Central Powers -
Ottoman Empire Decreased need for farmers Invention of
new machines Production
of goods Surplus of goods LEADS TO LEADS TO LEADS TO LEADS TO LEADS TO **Causes of Industrialization Inventions Steel Oil Communications Electricity Refridgeration Machinery Bessemer process leads to better steel
Better steel leads to an increase in railroads, better construction Fuel
Improvements in machinery Transportation Automobile
Airplane Telegraph >> Telephone Light bulb Food products can be transported farther Mass production
Assembly line Increase in population >> people need work >> willing to work for low wages
No government regulation on working conditions / child labor yet economic policy in which the government is "hands-off" of business activity. (Task) Unskilled labor practices (Trade) Skilled labor practices Shifted to... Used to be... need SOMEWHERE to SELL!! Global Trade increases >> WORKERS Go to where the work is.
Live close to where the work is. :growth of cities Less need for AS MANY farmers
Out of work farmers will go to cities to find work. Encouraged increased risk-taking. "You gotta spend $ to make $$$$" Andrew Carnegie - U.S. Steel
1. Make good products cheap
2. Hire talented people - get employees to compete
3. Control as much of the steel industry as possible
Vertical Integration - buy up supplies
Horizontal Integration - merge with companies making similar products John D. Rockefeller - Standard Oil
Joined with competing companies in trust agreements.
Participants turn stock over to a group.
Philanthropist - gave $$ to charities Followed the premise of Social Darwinism...
the success or failure of a business is governed by natural law
"Only the strong survive..." #insertevillaugh *Examples* Other examples:
Vanderbilt - RR tracks
Westinghouse - air breaks for trains
Pullman - RR cars Monopoly: complete control over an industry's production, wages and prices. Under monopolies, huge profits benefited the management while laborers had poor working and living conditions. ...greatly affects the... **Government becomes concerned.
Come out with the Sherman Anti-Trust Act
made it illegal to form a trust that interfered with trade between states and countries. Results in:
7 day work week
no vacation, sick leave, unemployment, worker's comp.
poor conditions (unsafe)
cheap labor using women, children, minorities Management Government Yellow dog contracts
in order to work you must sign a contract stating you would not join the union.
business owners create a list of workers who have joined unions.
Strike Breakers (Scab workers)
Management would use these workers to replace workers who were on strike. Begins to receive pressure from big business to help stop the strikes.
Businesses claimed that it violated the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (inter-state trade)
Gov't. used the National Guard and other government intervention to stop strikes. **Specialization, Interdependence, and Trade Activity**
>>Define Specialization, Interdependence, and Trade
>>Get into groups of 3. One person is the speaker, one is the timer, one is the recorder.
1. Create an example of this economic concept in society historically or in the present
2. Prepare to report out to the class National Labor Union (NLU) - 1866
first large scale union
Knights of Labor - 1869
Open to all workers
American Federation of Labor (AFL) - 1890s
focused on collective bargaining
Used strikes Early beliefs:
Washington speaking about isolationism in his Farewell Address
Monroe Doctrine (Europe should not interfere in the Americas Overproduction brought on the idea that merchants needed a new market to sell goods in (especially overseas) U.S. will also look overseas for new sources of resources and materials as well. :the policy in which stronger nations extend their economic, political, or military control over weaker territories. suggests that America would only be powerful if it grows as a sea power. suggests the need for control of the Isthmus of Panama to connect the oceans (HELLO PANAMA CANAL!!). America needed more ports, harbors and trade ships for international commercial trade. Naval bases are needed for security. Admiral Alfred T. Mahan
wrote "Influence of Sea Power upon History" Social Darwinism: belief that free-market competition would lead to the survival of the fittest. **Spread our culture outward rather than other cultures coming in** The Western Frontier had closed. Expansion overseas was "what's next..." Acts of U.S. Imperialism
Secretary of State John Seward favors a N. American empire consisting of Canada, Hawaii, and other Pacific Islands. Purchased Alaska from Russia in 1868 for $7.2 Million. Secured rights to the Midway Islands in 1867. Annexed Hawaii in 1898 Argument: Bringing in different types of people will endanger the American value system. Argument: Splitting away from American tradition. Argument: Imperialism served special interest groups. U.S. opinion was split (Some businessmen were concerned about losing Spanish business, others wanted to support the rebel cause). A large revolution launched in 1895. Cuba rebels in 1868 and again in 1878. Spain says "not a chance" American interest in Cuba surfaces in 1854 when diplomats recommended President Pierce buy Cuba from Spain. General Valeriano Weyler herds civilians into concentration camps. An estimated 300,000 Cubans filled these camps (thousands died from hunger & disease). Sparks a headline war between William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer. Hearst's New York Journal and Pulitzer's New York World print exaggerated reports of Weyler's brutality. (yellow journalism) The headlines pushed Americans to believe in the rebel cause, but President McKinley wanted to maintain a diplomatic approach. de Lomme Letter: Spanish minister to the U.S. wrote a letter that puts down McKinley >> gets printed in the newspapers. U.S.S. Maine exploded while in Havana, Cuba >> Newspapers claimed it was a Spanish attack. (Translation of letter written by Senor Don Enrique Dupuy de Lôme to Senor Don José Canelejas. Undated, but from internal evidence probably written about the middle of December, 1897.)
LEGACION DE ESPAÑA.
Don José Canalejas.
My distinguished and dear friend:
You have no reason to ask my excuses for not having written to me, I ought also to have written to you but I have put off doing so because overwhelmed with work and nous sommes quittes.
The situation here remains the same. Everything depends on the political and military outcome in Cuba. The prologue of all this, in this second stage (phase) of the war, will end the day when the colonial cabinet shall be appointed and we shall be relieved in the eyes of this country of a part of the responsibility for what is happening in Cuba while the Cubans, whom these people think so immaculate, will have to assume it.
Until then, nothing can be clearly seen, and I regard it as a waste of time and progress, by a wrong road, to be sending emissaries to the rebel camp, or to negotiate with the autonomists who have as yet no legal standing, or to try to ascertain the intentions and plans of this government. The (Cuban) refugees will keep on returning one by one and as they do so will make their way into the sheep-fold, while the leaders in the field will gradually come back. Neither the one nor the other class had the courage to leave in a body and they will not be brave enough to return in a body.
The Message has been a disillusionment to the insurgents who expected something different; but I regard it as bad (for us).
Besides the ingrained and inevitable bluntness (grosería) with which is repeated all that the press and public opinion in Spain have said about Weyler, it once more shows what McKinley is, weak and a bidder for the admiration of the crowd besides being a would-be politician (politicastro) who tries to leave a door open behind himself while keeping on good terms with the jingoes of his party.
Nevertheless, whether the practical results of it (the Message) are to be injurious and adverse depends only upon ourselves.
I am entirely of your opinions; without a military end of the matter nothing will be accomplished in Cuba, and without a military and political settlement there will always be the danger of encouragement being give to the insurgents, buy a part of the public opinion if not by the government.
I do not think sufficient attention has been paid to the part England is playing.
Nearly all the newspaper rabble that swarms in your hotels are Englishmen, and while writing for the Journal they are also correspondents of the most influential journals and reviews of London. It has been so ever since this thing began.
As I look at it, England’s only object is that the Americans should amuse themselves with us and leave her alone, and if there should be a war, that would the better stave off the conflict which she dreads but which will never come about.
It would be very advantageous to take up, even if only for effect, the question of commercial relations and to have a man of some prominence sent hither, in order that I may make use of him here to carry on a propaganda among the seantors and others in opposition to the Junta and to try to win over the refugees.
So, Amblard is coming. I think he devotes himself too much to petty politics, and we have got to do something very big or we shall fail.
Adela returns your greeting, and we all trust that next year you may be a messenger of peace and take it as a Christmas gift to poor Spain.
Ever your attached friend and servant,
ENRIQUE DUPUY de LÔME. April 11, 1898: McKinley asks Congress for a declaration of war. They debated for a week and finally declared on April 20, 1898. U.S. and Filipinos join forces >> defeat the Spanish in 2 months. Battle of Manila Bay >> Navy soundly defeats the Spanish U.S. surprise Spanish by attacking the Phillipines first. 125,000 Americans volunteered. Rough Riders:
volunteer cavalry under the command of Leonard Wood and Theodore Roosevelt. Most famous battle involved San Juan Hill.
Roosevelt and his units played only a minor role, but newspapers made him famous hero of the battle. 2 days later:
Spanish attempt to escape the American blockade.
Naval battle destroyed the Spanish fleet.
Americans invade Puerto Rico on July 25, 1898 :cease-fire agreement August 12, 1898 - Armistice Spain:
gave Guam, Puerto Rico to U.S.
sold the Phillipines to U.S. for $20 million Debate over the treaty:
Should the U.S. be imperialist?
Many were against the annexation of territories (Phillipines)
February 6, 1899 - annexation complete Foraker Act (1900) >> ended military rule and set up a civil gov't Puerto Rico elected the lower house President appoints Puerto Rico's governor and upper house of legislature Puerto Rico: Cuba: Platt Amendment: several provisions that the U.S. demanded be added to Cuba's constitution.
Cuba could not make treaties limiting its independence
U.S. had the right to intervene in Cuba
Cuba could not go into debt
U.S. could buy/lease land for naval refueling stations Military occupation Benefits of Cuba:
businesses: sugar, mining, tobacco, railroads Cuba became a protectorate issued by U.S. Secretary of State John Hay proposed that the imperialist nations share trading rights with the U.S. (creating an open door) kept any single nation from having a monopoly of trade with any part of China. Joint forces from multiple countries put down the rebellion within two months. Boxers (named this by Westerners because of Martial Arts) killed hundreds of missionaries and other foriegners. Strong dislike by some Chinese for the foreign intrusion John Hay issued a second series of Open Door notes.
Announced that the U.S. would safeguard equal and impartial trade with China. 1. The growth of the U.S. economy depended on exports.
2. The U.S. had the right to intervene abroad in order to keep markets open.
3. The closing of an area to American products, citizens or ideas threatened U.S. survival. First, the reasoning for the canal...
Reduce travel time for military and commercial ships.
Nice little short-cut U.S. purchases the French Company's zone for $40 million. Colombia had the rights, but a Panamanian rebellion led to independence for Panama. U.S. agrees to pay Panama $10 million plus rent of $250,000 for the Canal Zone. Construction began in 1904. By 1913, 43,400 workers were employed. Total cost: $380 million Lee Resolution (1776)
Declaration of Independence (1776)
Articles of Confederation (1777)
Treaty of Alliance with France (1778)
Original Design of the Great Seal of the United States (1782)
Treaty of Paris (1783)
Virginia Plan (1787)
Northwest Ordinance (1787)
Constitution of the United States (1787)
Federalist Papers, No. 10 & No. 51 (1787-1788)
President George Washington's First Inaugural Speech (1789)
Federal Judiciary Act (1789)
Bill of Rights (1791)
Patent for Cotton Gin (1794)
President George Washington's Farewell Address (1796)
Alien and Sedition Acts (1798)
Jefferson's Secret Message to Congress Regarding the Lewis & Clark Expedition (1803)
Louisiana Purchase Treaty (1803)
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Treaty of Ghent (1814)
McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
Missouri Compromise (1820)
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
Gibbons v. Ogden (1824)
President Andrew Jackson's Message to Congress 'On Indian Removal' (1830)
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848)
Compromise of 1850 (1850)
Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857) Check for the Purchase of Alaska (1868)
Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868)
14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Civil Rights (1868) 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Voting Rights (1870) Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
Dawes Act (1887) De Lôme Letter (1898)
Joint Resolution to Provide for Annexing the Hawaiian Islands to the United States (1898) Theodore Roosevelt's Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine (1905) President Woodrow Wilson's 14 Points (1918) Boulder Canyon Project Act (1928) National Labor Relations Act (1935)
Social Security Act (1935) Marshall Plan (1948)
Press Release Announcing U.S. Recognition of Israel (1948)
Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces (1948) Executive Order 10730: Desegregation of Central High School (1957) Social Security Act Amendments (1965)
Voting Rights Act (1965) Telegram Announcing the Surrender of Fort Sumter (1861) Homestead Act (1862)
Pacific Railway Act (1862)
Morrill Act (1862) Emancipation Proclamation (1863)
War Department General Order 143: Creation of the U.S. Colored Troops (1863)
Gettysburg Address (1863) Wade-Davis Bill (1864) President Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address (1865)
Articles of Agreement Relating to the Surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia (1865)
13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865) Act Establishing Yellowstone National Park (1872) Thomas Edison's Patent Application for the Light Bulb (1880) Chinese Exclusion Act (1882) Pendleton Act (1883) Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890) Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Platt Amendment (1903) 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Federal Income Tax (1913)
17th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Direct Election of U.S. Senators (1913) Keating-Owen Child Labor Act of 1916 (1916) Zimmermann Telegram (1917)
Joint Address to Congress Leading to a Declaration of War Against Germany (1917) 19th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Women's Right to Vote (1920) Tennessee Valley Authority Act (1933)
National Industrial Recovery Act (1933) President Franklin Roosevelt's Radio Address unveiling the second half of the New Deal (1936) President Franklin Roosevelt's Annual Message (Four Freedoms) to Congress (1941)
Lend-Lease Act (1941)
Executive Order 8802: Prohibition of Discrimination in the Defense Industry (1941)
Joint Address to Congress Leading to a Declaration of War Against Japan (1941) Executive Order 9066: Resulting in the Relocation of Japanese (1942) General Dwight D. Eisenhower's Order of the Day (1944)
Servicemen's Readjustment Act (1944) Manhattan Project Notebook (1942) Surrender of Germany (1945)
United Nations Charter (1945)
Surrender of Japan (1945) Truman Doctrine (1947) Armistice Agreement for the Restoration of the South Korean State (1953) Senate Resolution 301: Censure of Senator Joseph McCarthy (1954)
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) National Interstate and Defense Highways Act (1956) President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Farewell Address (1961)
President John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address (1961)
Executive Order 10924: Establishment of the Peace Corps. (1961) Transcript of John Glenn's Official Communication with the Command Center (1962)
Aerial Photograph of Missiles in Cuba (1962) Test Ban Treaty (1963)
Official Program for the March on Washington (1963) Civil Rights Act (1964)
Tonkin Gulf Resolution (1964) Passed by Congress February 26, 1869, and ratified February 3, 1870, the 15th amendment granted African American men the right to vote. Yellowstone became the first Federally protected national park by the Act of Congress signed into law on March 1, 1872. On January 27, 1880, Thomas Edison received the historic patent embodying the principles of his incandescent lamp that paved the way for the universal domestic use of electric light. The Chinese Exclusion Act was approved on May 6, 1882. It was the first significant law restricting immigration into the United States. Approved on January 16, 1883, the Pendleton Act established a merit-based system of selecting government officials and supervising their work. Approved on February 4, 1887, the Interstate Commerce Act created an Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee the conduct of the railroad industry. With this act, the railroads became the first industry subject to Federal regulation. Approved on February 8, 1887, "An Act to Provide for the Allotment of Lands in Severalty to Indians on the Various Reservations," known as the Dawes Act, emphasized severalty, the treatment of Native Americans as individuals rather than as members of tribes. Approved July 2, 1890, The Sherman Anti-Trust Act was the first Federal act that outlawed monopolistic business practices. The ruling in this Supreme Court case upheld a Louisiana state law that allowed for "equal but separate accommodations for the white and colored races." This letter, written by the Spanish Ambassador to the United States, Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, criticized American President William McKinley by calling him weak and concerned only with gaining the favor of the crowd. Publication of the letter helped generate public support for a war with Spain over the issue of independence for the Spanish colony of Cuba. On July 7, 1898, the Hawaiian Islands were annexed by this joint resolution. Approved on May 22, 1903, the Platt Amendment was a treaty between the U.S. and Cuba that attempted to protect Cuba's independence from foreign intervention. It permitted extensive U.S. involvement in Cuban international and domestic affairs for the enforcement of Cuban independence. In his annual messages to Congress in 1904 and 1905, President Theodore Roosevelt expanded the Monroe Doctrine. The corollary stated that not only were the nations of the Western Hemisphere not open to colonization by European powers, but that the United States had the responsibility to preserve order and protect life and property in those countries. Passed by Congress on July 2, 1909, and ratified February 3, 1913, the 16th amendment established Congress's right to impose a Federal income tax. Passed by Congress May 13, 1912, and ratified April 8, 1913, the 17th amendment modified Article I, section 3, of the Constitution by allowing voters to cast direct votes for U.S. Senators. Prior to its passage, Senators were chosen by state legislatures. Information and images on this
timeline have been gathered from http://www.ourdocuments.gov Photograph: LBJ signs Medicare Act (Social Security Amendments) with Harry Truman looking on, 07/30/1965 Tonkin Gulf Resolution, Senate roll call tally sheet, 08/07/1964 Photograph: Senator Richard Russell and President Lyndon B. Johnson, 12/07/1963 Photograph, "Civil Rights March on Washington, D. C.", 08/28/1963 Eisenhower's Draft for Little Rock speech (third draft), September 24, 1957 Implementation Decree; May 31, 1955 Photograph, "POWs (recently repatriated in the UN POW exchange) pose for a group photograph with their flight nurses at Tachikawa Air Base, Japan, 09/05/1953" Photograph: West Berlin, Germany; ARC #541691 Photograph, "General Dwight D. Eisenhower gives the order of the Day," 6/6/44; ARC #531217 Photograph, "Japanese near trains during Relocation"; ARC #195538; Photograph (Still Picture 169-L-14-3543) by Gruber for the Office of War Information Poster, "Freedom from Fear," 1941-1945 by Norman Rockwell Photograph, "Unemployed insured workers registering for jobs and filing benefit claims at a State employment office" Photograph, "Police battle with striking truck drivers," Minneapolis, Minnesota, 1934 Graphic of NRA Blue Eagle, ca. 1933 Photograph, Tennessee Valley Authority Douglas Dam on the Franch Broad River, 1942. Photograph, "Boulder Dam, 1941," by Ansel Adams, 1941. Photograph, "Bastille Day spells prison for sixteen suffragettes who picketed the White House" July 19, 1917 Joint Resolution of Congress declaring war on Germany, April 6, 1917 Decoded Zimmermann Telegram, 1917. Photograph of Bibb Mill No. 1, Macon, GA, by Lewis Hine for the National Child Labor Committee, 1/19/1909. First page of Income Tax Form 1040, from the United States Internal Revenue Bureau, 1913. Letter of protest from Queen Liliuokalani of Hawaii to the United States House of Representatives Photograph, Cascade Creek, Yellowstone, 1869-1878 by William H. Jackson Passed by Congress June 13, 1866, and ratified July 9, 1868, the 14th amendment extended liberties and rights granted by the Bill of Rights to former slaves. In this treaty, signed on April 29, 1868, between the U.S. Government and the Sioux Nation, the United States recognized the Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux Reservation, set aside for exclusive use by the Sioux people. With this check, the United States purchased Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million. The Russian exchange copy of the Treaty of Cession Passed by Congress on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, the 13th amendment abolished slavery in the United States. On April 9, 1865, Generals Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee met in the parlor of a house in Appomattox Court House, VA, to discuss this surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, which would end the Civil War. According to the terms, the men of Lee's army could return home in safety if they pledged to end the fighting and deliver their arms to the Union Army. On March 4, 1865, in his second inaugural address, President Abraham Lincoln spoke of mutual forgiveness, North and South, asserting that the true mettle of a nation lies in its capacity for charity. Last Page of Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address At the end of the Civil War, this bill created a framework for Reconstruction and the readmittance of the Confederate states to the Union. Perhaps the most famous battle of the Civil War took place at Gettysburg, PA, July 1 to July 3, 1863. At the end of the battle, the Union's Army of the Potomac had successfully repelled the second invasion of the North by the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia. Several months later, President Lincoln went to Gettysburg to speak at the dedication of the cemetery for the Union war dead. Speaking of a "new birth of freedom," he delivered one of the most memorable speeches in U.S. history. The War Department issued General Order 143 on May 22, 1863, creating the United States Colored Troops. By the end of the Civil War, roughly 179,000 black men (10 percent of the Union Army) served as soldiers in the U.S. Army, and another 19,000 served in the Navy. President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, announcing, "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious areas "are, and henceforward shall be free." Passed on July 2, 1862, this act made it possible for new western states to establish colleges for their citizens. The new land-grant institutions, which emphasized agriculture and mechanic arts, opened opportunities to thousands of farmers and working people previously excluded from higher education. This act, passed on July 1, 1862, provided Federal subsidies in land and loans for the construction of a transcontinental railroad across the United States. Passed on May 20, 1862, the Homestead Act accelerated the settlement of the western territory by granting adult heads of families 160 acres of surveyed public land for a minimal filing fee and 5 years of continuous residence on that land. The first engagement of the Civil War took place at Fort Sumter on April 12 and 13, 1861. After 34 hours of fighting, the Union surrendered the fort to the Confederates. This act limited the working hours of children and forbade the interstate sale of goods produced by child labor. This telegram, written by German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann, is a coded message sent to Mexico, proposing a military alliance against the United States. The obvious threats to the United States contained in the telegram inflamed American public opinion against Germany and helped convince Congress to declare war against Germany in 1917. On April 2, 1917, President Woodrow Wilson delivered this address to a joint session of Congress and called for a declaration of war against Germany. The resulting congressional vote brought the United States into World War I. In this January 8, 1918, address to Congress, President Woodrow Wilson proposed a 14-point program for world peace. These points were later taken as the basis for peace negotiations at the end of the war. Passed by Congress June 4, 1919, and ratified on August 18, 1920, the 19th amendment granted women the right to vote. This act authorized the construction of the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River and the All-American Canal to the Imperial Valley in California. This act of May 18, 1933, created the Tennessee Valley Authority to oversee the construction of dams to control flooding, improve navigation, and create cheap electric power in the Tennessee Valley basin. On June 16, 1933, this act established the National Recovery Administration, which supervised fair trade codes and guaranteed laborers a right to collective bargaining. Also known as the Wagner Act, this bill was signed into law by President Franklin Roosevelt on July 5, 1935. It established the National Labor Relations Board and addressed relations between unions and employers in the private sector. On August 14, 1935, the Social Security Act established a system of old-age benefits for workers, benefits for victims of industrial accidents, unemployment insurance, aid for dependent mothers and children, the blind, and the physically handicapped. In this radio address, President Franklin Roosevelt announced a second set of measures to combat the Great Depression, which become known as the Second New Deal. These included a series of new relief programs such as the Works Progress Administration. This speech delivered by President Franklin Roosevelt on January 6, 1941, became known as his "Four Freedoms Speech," due to a short closing portion describing the President's vision in which the American ideals of individual liberties were extended throughout the world. Passed on March 11, 1941, this act set up a system that would allow the United States to lend or lease war supplies to any nation deemed "vital to the defense of the United States." In June of 1941, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802, banning discriminatory employment practices by Federal agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war-related work. The order also established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy. On December 8, 1941, the day after the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Roosevelt delivered this "Day of Infamy Speech." Immediately afterward, Congress declared war, and the United States entered World War II. Issued by President Franklin Roosevelt on February 19, 1942, this order authorized the evacuation of all persons deemed a threat to national security from the West Coast to relocation centers further inland. This notebook records an experiment of the Manhattan Project, the all-out, but highly secret, effort of the Federal Government to build an atomic bomb during World War II. Recorded here is the world's first controlled, self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction, achieved on December 2, 1942. This instrument of surrender was signed on May 7, 1945, at Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower's headquarters in Reims by Gen. Alfred Jodl, Chief of Staff of the German Army. At the same time, he signed three other surrender documents, one each for Great Britain, Russia, and France. On June 26, 1945, in San Francisco, the United Nations was established. Article 111 of its charter indicated that "The present Charter, of which the Chinese, French, Russian, English, and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall remain deposited in the archives of the Government of the United States of America. Duly certified copies thereof shall be transmitted by that Government to the Governments of the other signatory states." Aboard the USS Missouri, this instrument of surrender was signed on September 2, 1945, by the Japanese envoys Foreign Minister Mamora Shigemitsu and Gen. Yoshijiro Umezu. On March 12, 1947, President Harry S. Truman presented this address before a joint session of Congress. His message, known as the Truman Doctrine, asked Congress for $400 million in military and economic assistance for Turkey and Greece. On April 3, 1948, President Truman signed the Economic Recovery Act of 1948. It became known as the Marshall Plan, named for Secretary of State George Marshall, who in 1947 proposed that the United States provide economic assistance to restore the economic infrastructure of postwar Europe. At midnight on May 14, 1948, the Provisional Government of Israel proclaimed a new State of Israel. On that same date, the United States, in the person of President Truman, recognized the provisional Jewish government as de facto authority of the Jewish state (de jure recognition was extended on January 31, 1949). On July 26, 1948, President Harry S. Truman signed this executive order establishing the President's Committee on Equality of Treatment and Opportunity in the Armed Services, committing the government to integrating the segregated military. This order was issued by Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower to encourage Allied soldiers taking part in the D-day invasion. Signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on June 22, 1944, this act, also known as the GI Bill, provided veterans of the Second World War funds for college education, unemployment insurance, and housing. This armistice signed on July 27, 1953, formally ended the war in Korea. North and South Korea remain separate and occupy almost the same territory they had when the war began. On December 2, 1954, the Senate voted to censure Senator Joseph McCarthy, who had led the fight in Congress to root out suspected Communists from the Federal Government. The censure described his behavior as "contrary to senatorial traditions." In this milestone decision, the Supreme Court ruled that separating children in public schools on the basis of race was unconstitutional. It signaled the end of legalized racial segregation in the schools of the United States, overruling the "separate but equal" principle set forth in the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson case. This act authorized the building of highways throughout the nation, which would be the biggest public works project in the nation's history. This executive order of September 23, 1957, signed by President Dwight Eisenhower, sent Federal troops to maintain order and peace while the integration of Central High School in Little Rock, AR, took place. On January 17, 1961, in this farewell address, President Dwight Eisenhower warned against the establishment of a "military-industrial complex." On January 20, 1961, President John F. Kennedy delivered his inaugural address in which he announced that "we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty." On March 1, 1961, President Kennedy signed this executive order establishing the Peace Corps. On September 22, 1961, Congress approved the legislation that formally authorized the Peace Corps. Goals of the Peace Corps included: 1) helping the people of interested countries and areas meet their needs for trained workers; 2) helping promote a better understanding of Americans in countries where volunteers served; and 3) helping promote a better understanding of peoples of other nations on the part of Americans. John Glenn conducted the first manned space orbit of the earth on February 20, 1962. This is the transcription of his in-flight communication with Mission Control in Florida. Instrumental in the early stages of the Cuban missile crisis, these photographs showed that the Soviet Union was amassing offensive ballistic missiles in Cuba. President John F. Kennedy warned that any attempt by the Soviet Union to place nuclear weapons in Cuba would be seen as a threat to the United States. On August 5, 1963, the Limited Test Ban Treaty was signed by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union. After Senate approval, the treaty that went into effect on October 10, 1963, banned nuclear weapons testing in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water. This program listed the events scheduled at the Lincoln Memorial during the August 28, 1963, March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. The highlight of the march, which attracted 250,000 people, was Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech. This act, signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on July 2, 1964, prohibited discrimination in public places, provided for the integration of schools and other public facilities, and made employment discrimination illegal. This document was the most sweeping civil rights legislation since Reconstruction. This joint resolution of Congress (H.J. RES 1145) dated August 7, 1964, gave President Lyndon Johnson authority to increase U.S. involvement in the war between North and South Vietnam. This act was signed into law by President Lyndon Johnson on July 30, 1965, in Independence, MO. It established Medicare, a health insurance program for the elderly, and Medicaid, a health insurance program for the poor. This act was signed into law on August 6, 1965, by President Lyndon Johnson. It outlawed the discriminatory voting practices adopted in many southern states after the Civil War, including literacy tests as a prerequisite to voting. Treaty of Paris
Open Door notes
Francisco "Pancho" Villa
John J. Pershing How would you define an "empire"? Monroe Doctrine - 1823 Europe: Stay out of the Western Hemisphere! Roosevelt Corollary - 1904 Europe: Stay out of the Western Hemisphere! The U.S. will intervene. Protectorate; similar to a colony Protectorate; similar to a colony "Trading Partner" Important strategic location To protect American Business To establish and protect markets in China Treaty of Paris; Foraker Act; imperialist policies Platt Amendment, imperialist policies Treaty of Paris; imperialist policies Open Door Policy, imperialist policies Spanish- American War Spanish-American War, Phillipine American War Boxer Rebellion