Transcript of China 1900's Timeline
1950 1925 1975 China: The 1900's December 29, 1911 A revolution led by Sun Yat-sen (or Sun Yixian) ended the rule of emperors in China. April 12, 1927-December 12, 1936 A military leader, Chiang Kai-shek (or Jiang Jieshi), had formed the Nationalist government of the Republic of China. Meanwhile, Chiang's Communist rival, Mao Zedong, gained support from China's farmers. Civil war begins. December 12, 1936-September 2,1945 During World War 2, the Chinese Nationalists and Chinese Communists had agreed to temporarily stop their civil war to create an uneasy alliance in the face of the common threat posed by Japanese aggression. The combined forces fought an effective guerilla campaign against Japan until they surrendered in 1945. September 2, 1945-1949 Right after the end of the war; however, bitter fighting broke out and the civil war began again. In 1949, Mao Zedong and his Communist allies drove the Nationalists from power. Chiang Kai-shek and his Nationalist supporters fled to Taiwan, where they formed their government. Mao and his supporters then form the People’s Republic of China. About 1 million Chinese were killed in the Communist takeover. The United States, which had supported the Nationalists, refused to recognize the new Chinese government. 1953-1958 Plans for what would be the countries first Five-Year Plan, are put into place. Plans were for building up China’s industry and land reform. Landlords were forced to give up their land to the peasants. Millions of people were killed during this violent change. The peasants organized their new land into collective farms. Whatever land that was left was turned into government operated state farms. As a result, both agricultural and industrial output increased. 1958-1960 More plans for another Five-Year Plan, called the Great Leap Forward, were to be enacted to speed up progress. The reason for such a speed up was so that industrial output would equal that of the West. China bought modern machinery to use for this goal,but ran it almost continuously. The government tried to get the citizens to produce their own iron and steel in their backyards. Huge farm communities, called people’s communes, are created. These included farms and small industries. Single people lived in dormitories, meals were served in mess halls, and children were cared for in nurseries while their parents worked long hours in the fields and factories. Workers were paid based on “work points,” which were set based on gender, age, skills, type of job, and region.This plan was a horrible failure. Industrial output decreased, and there were constant food shortages. 20 million people had starved before the program ended in 1960. As Mao Zedong’s ability to lead the nation came into question, he enacted a violent attempt at social change called the Cultural Revolution. Mao aimed to rid China of old customs, habits, and thoughts. He wanted these ideas replaced with his own, which were collected in a little red book. His ideas spoke out against groups of people. To lead this revolution, Mao chose China’s young people. These radical students, known as the Red Guards, went on rampages throughout China, ruining ancient works of art, burning books, destroying anything from the “old way”, as well as beating, torturing, or killing some people who did not follow Mao’s teachings completely. This led to chaos in Chinese society until Mao took control and broke up the Red Guards.Full transcript
1966-1968 By: Jacob Asberry September 2-18, 1976 After Mao Zedong’s death, a struggle began between moderate Communists and a radical group led by Mao’s widow, Jiang qing. the moderates wanted to restore order and economic growth. Jiang Qing’s group, known as the Gang of Four, wanted to continue the Cultural Revolution. In time, the moderates won control and placed the Gang of Four on trial for numerous crimes, including treason. They were found guilty and given life sentences.
By this time, Deng Xiaoping had become the leader of the moderates and directed a complete reform of the economy. His plan for China was called the Four Modernizations, which would improve agriculture, industry, science, and technology, and national defense. China soon began to move towards a market economy, creating a more open society in which there was more exchange between China and the Western world. China was becoming a more technological society as well as an economic power.
1977-1985 1986-1988 China had become one of the world’s fastest growing economies. Many Chinese begin to speak out for a democratic government.
June 3-4, 1989 Hundreds of thousands of pro-democracy demonstrators occupied Tiananmen Square, a central gathering place in Beijing. They protested for an end to corruption within the ruling party, a greater say in in government, and better conditions in universities. Chinese officials became angry when protesters refused to listen to government orders. In early June, the Chinese military was sent to Tiananmen Square and ordered to open fire on the protesters. Hundreds of protesters were killed and thousands more were wounded in what would be called the Tiananmen Square Massacre.
The Tiananmen Square Massacre stunned the West. Most Western nations and international aid agencies stopped or cut back on loans to China. Most tourists chose to avoid visiting China. As a result, China faced major economic problems.
1990-1992 March 27, 1993 Jiang Zemin is elected China’s president. He proposes a new plan to solve economic problems.
The Chinese government gave up control of thousands of state-owned businesses that were losing money and gave them to new private owners that had to find ways of making profit.
1997 2000 Only some of the companies were making money, yet the plan did give China some much-needed income. Even with this economic boost, the unemployment rate is at 30% in some cities and millions of people are living in poverty.