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Cuban American Culture
Transcript of Cuban American Culture
TO BEGIN WITH
Cuban Folk Dance
- Cristopher Columbus discovers Cuba
- Throughout the 16th century, Cuba was utilized as a base for the conquest and colonization of the continent.
- In 1607, Havana is crowned capital of Cuba.
19th Century and Current
- Among the years 1823 and 1840 the differences of political and economic interests began growing among the Spaniards
- In 1868, slavery is abolished in Cuba
- The War of Ten years begins on October 10, 1868.
-In 1972, Castro becomes the President of Cuba
Communicating with Cubans
Cubans migrating to the United States speak the Spanish language, as it is the official language of Cuba.
According to Cox (2011), language barriers can hinder communication between nurses and patients from different cultures. During the admission and assessment process, nurses can convey empathy by recognizing what the patient is experiencing.Accents tend to vary by the three regions of the Cuban island. Cuban Spanish has and African influence and incorporates words from both the Taino (native Indian) and English language (Giger, 2013). “Spanglish” or a mixture of Spanish and English is spoken by many in the home (AHS, 2016).
“Culture is the way people experience, perceive and interpret values, worldview, time orientation, personal space orientation, language, touch, and family organization. As nurses struggle to provide care to immigrant women and their families, cultural considerations become increasingly important” (Cox, 2011).
In providing culturally competent care to individuals of different cultures, it is important to have knowledge on the culture with regards to six different phenomenon: communication, space, time, social organization, environmental control and biological variations.
Assessing people of Cuban descent can be difficult because of little research about the culture. The majority of reasearch has been on Mexican cultures requiring (Cox, 2011).
Cuban conversations are usually loud, forceful, rapidly, and lively (AHS, 2016). Some may interpret this loud and direct use of communication as aggressive (Health Care Chaplaincy, 2013). Silence is usually understood as uncertainty or awkwardness (Giger, 2013). When speaking Spanish When speaking Spanish, Cubans often shorten their words by dropping letters. Hand gestures reinforce ideas and emotions, while maintaining eye contact is important, especially in formal settings. A lack of eye contact can be seen as a sign of insincerity, disrespect, or spite. “Beckoning may occur by waving fingers inward with the palm down, while holding a palm up when beckoning is considered a hostile gesture” (Giger, 2013). Touching and close contact is acceptable among family and friends. Family members will greet with hug and kiss on cheek, and a handshake is customary among men (AHS, 2016).
Some effective communication techniques when interacting with non-English speaking Cuban patients include, “showing respect by valuing what the patient feels is important. Nurses should establish a rapport by initiating social, friendly conversation, actively listening, using non-verbal cues and body language, and the use of concerned facial expressions, while listening to the family’s input” (Cox, 2011).
-• Patients less familiar with English may need assistance with filling out required forms.
•- Inquire of patient who is the decision maker for the family and obtain permissions per HIPAA requirements.
•- For invasive procedures, obtain verbal consent from family as well as closest relative, in addition to written consent from the patient.
• -Anticipate direct eye contact.
• -Formal greetings would be used among strangers.
Barriers and nursing
This video satirically demonstrates the use of animated hand gestures and hand shaking, which makes up a large part on non-verbal language among the Cuban culture. (Giger, 2013).
This video satirically demonstrates the quality in pressure of speech used
Culturally, Cubans tend to stand close in regards to personal space when communicating (Giger,2013). Physical touch is sometimes used to present or emphasize a point that is being made. When other family members are ill, the family as well as other in the Cuban community feel a sense of urgency to be by the side of the person who has fallen ill because sense of physical presence is important and valued part of Cuban culture.
The Cuban culture tends to view time more causally than other cultures and may not follow traditional schedules. The encounter itself holds more importance than the actual time in which it begins or ends. Cuban Americans have become more accustomed to schedule times and “clock times” rather than social timing. It is important as healthcare workers that we assess, on an individual basis, the patient’s perception of time orientation.
Generally there is a dominant male figure and a dependent female figure, with these roles only changing slightly when more women began entering the workforce. It is common for children to create strong bonds with their parents. Multi-generational households are common.. Elder adults are greatly respected not only by family, but by the community as a whole. Breastfeeding is viewed more on a degree of attractiveness, rather than health benefits. Breastfeeding can cause deformity to the breast and could essentially make a woman unattractive to other males, decreasing her chances of breastfeeding, or the time in which she does. “Cuban women associate crying by a child with the inability to meet a child’s physical and psycho-emotional needs”, and “crying is considered an unacceptable behavior for infants and preschool children, with quietness being associated with happiness and contentment” (Giger, 2013).
Belief in a higher power is common amongst Cuban Americans. Prior to Fidel Castro approximately 85% of Cubans were Catholic, however is recent years there has been growth of Cuban’s seen in other religions, listed as Catholic at 47%, Protestant 4%, and Santeria 2% (Giger, 2013). Although Catholicism is the most practiced religion in Cuba, it is sometimes combined with African Voodoo, which may include rituals, animal sacrifice, wearing of amulets, incantations, magic, and spirit possession. Cuban American’s who associate with a religion generally displaying shrines in their personal spaces such as homes, yards, or places of business.
Cubans have many of the same cultural aspects that other Latino groups do, but there are some apparent differences.
Many Cubans believe that they have some control over their circumstances. Despite communist control, many Cubans work hard to try and improve their lifestyle. (Giger 2013). This often explains why most of this population waits until there is a crisis before seeking medical care. Some may even use traditional home remedies before going to a healthcare center.
Another important point, is that Cuban’s express pain and other health care issues in ways that nursing staff could misinterpret. “Pain is expressed with verbal complaints, moaning, crying, and groaning that may or may not signify the need for pain medication” (Purnell 2014, p.146).
There is some crossover between environmental controls and biological variations. Cubans have disadvantages in maintaining a healthy lifestyle due to the belief that being overweight is considered healthy, and attractive. (Purnell 2014). This trend of obesity is apparent in many cultures today, which can lead to chronic health illnesses that can affect one’s overall health. This is especially true when a specific culture has a genetic predisposition and a higher risk for these disease processes.
Biological variations cont
Cuban culture has a higher rate of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension. (Giger, 2013). Sodium intake and cholesterol levels play a huge role in these disease processes, and both genetics and lifestyle influence them.
Cubans are generally of medium stature and range from healthy weight to overweight to obese.
They tend to have tanned skin with dark brown hair and eyes.
Moros y Cristianos a.k.a Arroz Con Gris: Recipe Black Beans and Rice
Folk medicine, illnesses, and treatments are commonly misunderstood by Non-Latino physicians and healthcare workers. Curanderos, also known as traditional healers whom utilize folk remedies, particularly in Cuban medicine, utilize what is known as “hot” and “cold” illnesses. Home remedies such as various herbal teas are common.- During Pregnancy, “Cubans believe that hot foods (which contain protein) should be avoided. Milk during pregnancy may result in a large baby. Some believe that fright or surprise will “leave a mark” on their baby. Many Cuban women have used herbal remedies to maintain their health. Herbal preparations are drunk as tea to “warm the womb.” Herbal remedies which are believed to stimulate labor and other herbal remedies are thought by some to relieve pain following childbirth” (Cox, 2011).
Afro-Cuban Folk Dance and Song called “Caidije”Cuban folk dance by 'Conjunto Artístico Maraguán', from Camangüey, Cuba. Recorded in Viana do Castelo, Portugal, on 02/09/2010).
Video of Cuban Folk Dance entitled: Cuban folk dance: El perico ripiao, El pompore & Zumba Antonio/Tingo talao
Colors of My World by Annie Maxwell
In this painting, many popular components of Cuban culture, including the famous Cuban coffee and Cigars, are illustrated:
Retrieved from: http://images.fineartamerica.com/images-medium-large-5/colors-of-my-world-annie-maxwell.jpg
Juego de Domino by José Rodríguez Fuster
Playing dominoes is a typical past time and favorite of the Cuban people with popularity rivaling the national sport of Baseball
Retrieved from: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fd/Juego_de_domino.JPG
“Most families of Cuban descent are Catholic; thus, they consider human life sacred. Contraception and abortion are not generally accepted for Cuban women because life is considered a gift from God. The mystery of new life in Cuban culture is celebrated with a variety of religious traditions. By adhering to specific practices and rituals, the new mother demonstrates respect for her culture and honors her own mother” (Cox, 2011)
Social Organization Cont
The Struggles Of a Cuban Family
View OF HealthCare
“In Cuba, the health care system consists of multiple nested primary relationships, all originating at the family level. Hence, maintenance of a healthy lifestyle—behavior consistent with the public health care system’s goals—is a duty of citizens, who are strongly inﬂuenced by the health care system at every level of personal and institutional interaction. The relationships among parents and family members, medical clinics (called polyclinics), and medical and political personnel are so tightly nested that the citizens perspective on health care is profoundly affected by community leaders and medical professionals. Health care in Cuba is considered a qualiﬁed right, guaranteed to every citizen, regardless of productivity, class, family background, or position in the government” (Reay, 2012). Because of this, Cubans immigrate to the U.S. with these same ideals and values toward their definition of health care.
In Cuban cultural family is extremely important and older adults are held in high regard. The older adults are referred to as s los abuelos, or grandparents, regardless of whether they have grandchildren. Advanced age is considered a time for continued learning and family support for working families. The retirement age for woman in Cuba is 55 and for men it is 60, allowing them to provide support and care to their grandchild while the parents are working. Cuba also offers programs similar to those offered in the United States such as adult daycares, physical rehabilitation facilities, and nursing homes, also not as widely utilized in Cuba as it is in the US. Nursing homes are generally provide care to those individuals with Alzheimer’s and other related disorders. It is preferred that older adults remain in the home to be cared for by family.
Adventist Health Systems. (2016). Florida Hospital: Guide to Religion and Culture in Healthcare; Culture: 15.0 \
Hispanic Cuban. Orlando, FL. Retrieved from: Cerner Electronic Health Records at Florida Hospital
Campinha-Bacote, J., (2011). Delivering Patient-Centered Care in the Midst of a Cultural Conflict: The Role of
OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing
, 16(2). DOI: 10.3912/OJIN.Vol16No02Man05
Cox, J. E., (2011). The Lived Experience of Childbirth among 21st Century Cuban Women In a Florida Hospital.
Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest. Retrieved from: file:///F:/Cultural%20Diversity%20in%20Nursing/Cuban
Giger, J. N. (2013).
Transcultural Nursing: Assessment and Intervention
(6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.
Herman, C. Z. (2011). Social Services in Cuba. National Association of Social Workers, 1-11.
Health Care Chaplaincy Network. (2013). Handbook of Patients’ Spiritual and Cultural Values for Health Care
Professionals: Cuban Culture. p. 50-52. New York, NY. Retrieved from: http://
Juckett, G. M. (2013). Caring for Latino Patients.
American Family Physician
, 87(1), 48-56.
Purnell, L.D. (2014)
Guide to Culturally Competent Healthcare
(3rd ed.) Philadelphia, PA: FA Davis
Reay, W. (2012). Cuban Public Health: Living the Marxist Dream.
American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
181-185. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2012.01152.x Retrieved from: file:///F:/Cultural%20Diversity%20in%20Nursing/Cuban%20Public%20health.pdf
1 whole lime, 1 tsp salt, 1 cup of water and a spoonful of organic raw honey
In a small tea cup, add 1 cup of warm water and half a lime with a pinch of salt. Gargle for 20 seconds spit out and repeat.
Or, if you’re feeling like you’re going to catch a cold and you’ve got a runny nose, you’re coughing, and have a sore throat, these ingredients can help make my mom’s at-home lime tea.
Boil 1 1/2 cup of water. Squeeze the whole lime into the boiling water. Add 2 spoons of raw organic honey into hot lime water and stir. Pour the tea into a cup and drink the entire thing.
Retrieved From: http://presspasslatino.com/2015/01/28/abuelas-home-remedies/
Cuban Home Remedy for Colds
Vaca Frita recipe
Below is a recipe of the traditional cuban dish "vaca frita" (fried cow)