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Transcript of European Architecture
How does it impact Architecture in Europe? Purpose:
"To produce beautiful objects and buildings that could enhance the lives of ordinary people, and at the same time provide decent employment for the craftsman, due to the industrial life anxiety."
Started by William Morris in the late 1800s Since the manufacturing goods were poor in quality; it stopped the architect's desire to design.
Throughout this movement, architects and designers looked to improve standards and taking pride in their craftsmanship and skills. This movement influenced architects and designers into using the following materials:
stained glass windows
The European architecture's change was also due to the reaction of the destruction of the two world wars, especially because people began living in dugouts.
Today's modern architecture is influenced by symmetry, which has been something European architecture was known for. Koolhaas, who is perhaps the most influential architect working today, is particularly known for the symmetry in his buildings. Architecture Today "Europe may be steeped in tradition, but it boasts an electric mix of modern buildings."
~Steve McKenna *Fact*
Each type of arch details on each building changed based on each region, tradition, trends, and dates. Architect's Purpose For Today & Future... to create buildings that impact how we live
to create buildings with materials that don't harm the environment. (ex: eco neighborhoods) Famous Architects Today... Geli, Barcelona: Enric RUiz El Bulli Foundation; Inventor of Cloud 9: A bubble building located in Barcelona, Spain. London: Sarah Wigglesworth Chosen as one of the top 10 International Architects by Architectual Record.
Famous Project: Takeley Primary School, and Sandal Magna School in the UK. Copenhagen: Bjarke Ingles One of the most celebrated young architects in Europe.
Won the 2010 European Prize for architecture.
Known for daring and extravagant buildings.
Famous Project: Superkilen; an Urban Park located in Copenhagen Amsterdam: Bjarne Mastenbroek Is known for creating buildings with organic forms to respect nature.
Famous Project: Villa Vals; an underground Hotel in Switzerland. Paris, France: The Pompidou Center London, England:
30 St. Mary Axe (The Gherkin) Santorini, Greece Moscow, Russia:
St. Basil's Cathedral Paris, France:
La Defense Rome, Italy: Maxxi Museum of the Arts Berlin, Germany:
Reichstag Graz, Austria: The Kunsthaus Classical Classical Architecture is the origin of all of the styles of architecture used today
It began in Ancient Greece and Rome, and spread throughout Europe
Classical Architecture was simple, but every detail had its meaning and purpose The Panels showed scenes from the Athenian Knights, gods, mythical figures, and significant battles. The many exits provided access to the staircases on the upper level; allowing more than 50,000 people inside This upper part of the Colosseum is called "The Brackets"; they were designed to shade the seats that were exposed to direct sunlight. The Columns give an illusion of being perfectly aligned, but in reality, they are inclined towards the center. The Parthenon in Greece The Colosseum in Rome Gothic Gothic Architecture developed during the high Medieval Period in Northern France
It is also known as French Style Architecture
Gothic Architecture was more detailed and featured in castles, churches, bridges and gates Gothic Architecture is known for high structures; the "Flying Buttresses" helped as a way of supporting its tall walls. The Gargoyles were not just decoration, they also served as a "waterspout" that projected water away from the building to prevent it from flooding Gothic buildings are full of animated decorations; such as the Gargoyles at the top of the buildings Gothic Architecture became known for its amazing Stained Glassed Windows Notre-Dame in France Chartres Cathedral in France Renaissance Renaissance architecture became known for its symmetry and proportion
Originated in Florence, Italy and then spread to France, Germany and other parts of Europe The Dome was an important and common part in the Renaissance Architecture Many domes had paintings and decorations on the ceilings Arches and Domes were a classical part of the Renaissance Architecture; as well as a raised platform which emphasized the look and setting of a building One of the main things that symbolizes Renaissance Architecture is the perfect and precise symmetry of the buildings
The Villa Rotonda is the perfect example of this kind of symmetry
This building was designed by Architect Andrea Palladio in the late Renaissance times
It is located in Vicenza, Italy St. Peter's Cathedral in Rome The Villa Rotonda in Italy New Classic After the Renaissance, architects returned to the classical ideas borrowed from Ancient Greece such as the tall columns, the domed roof, and the symmetry
The United States adopted New Classical ideas in architecture as well The United States Capitol Building is an example of the New Classical type of architecture in the US
Other New Classical designs in the US are the White House and the Supreme Court located in Washington DC St. Paul's Cathedral in London Washington DC Government Buildings Throughout History, various trends, traditions, and advances in technology have changed Europe. Regardless of these changes, architects have protected the individuality and unique designs of Architecture in Europe, as well as creating new and improved plans according to our daily needs. Old Types of Architecture The Arts and Crafts movement was an international movement led by William Morris which focused on design during the 1860s. This event marked one of the most significant changes in Architecture in Europe. N (Stevenson 10, 11) (Stevenson 32, 33) (Stevenson 44, 48) (Stevenson 59) (Jirousek, "The Arts and Crafts Movement") ("European Architecture" questia.com) ("Office Profiles Architects") ("Superkielen" The American Institute of Architects) ("Villa Vals" villavals.ch) "Cloud 9 - Enric Ruiz Geli - Barcelona - Architects | world-architects.com." World-Architects | International architecture profiles, projects, manufacturers. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. <http://www.world-architects.com/en/cloud9/en/>.
Stevenson, Neil. Architecture explained. Rev. ed. New York: DK Pub., 2007. Print.
"The American Institute of Architects - SUPERKILEN." The American Institute of Architects - AIA Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. <http://www.aia.org/practicing/awards/2013/regional-urban-design/superkilen/>.
"The Arts and Crafts Movement." Art, Design, and Visual Thinking. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. <http://char.txa.cornell.edu/art/decart/artcraft/artcraft.htm>.
"Villa Vals." Villa Vals. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. <http://www.villavals.ch/>.
topic. "European Architecture - Architecture, Art and Architecture | Questia, Your Online Research Library." Questia, Your Online Research Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 May 2013. <http://www.questia.com/library/art-and-architecture/architecture/european-architecture>. Works Cited Changes throughout history including advances in technology has made some, if not, little impact on the fact that European Architecture has maintained it's rich history of unique design. Therefore, one can conclude that architects have protected the old architecture as well as adding new and improved designs according to our new and modern ways of living. As you can see, each region in Europe has its own style and unique designs of architecture; they have managed to maintain its originality and beauty of each design.