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David Thornton

on 9 March 2013

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www.facebook.com/clemsonsustainablebiofuels Follow Our Progress! (1) Use Of Soldier Fly Larvae In Organic Waste Management<http://www.ibiblio.org/london/orgfarm/composting/Compost+Soldier-fly-larvae.txt> Dr. R. Newby. Central Queensland University. Biology Department. (2) Filth fly (Diptera) oviposition and larval development in poultry manure of various moisture levels. Fatchurochim, S., C.J. Geden and R.C. Axtell 1989. J Entomol Sci 24: 224-231. (Note: No original source document has been found. This article was originally referenced and sited by source 1 pages 5, 7.) (3) Performance Comparison of Earthworms and Soldier Fly Larvae in the processing of Sewage Sludge. Advanced Wastewater Treatment Technologies (AWTT) Scheme. Project 1003-01-001. Dr. Kevin Warburton, Dept. of Zoology, University of Queensland, St. Lucia Q. 4072. Tel.: (07) 3365 2979. Fax: (07) 3365 1655. Email: KWarburton@zoology.uq.edu.au<mailto:KWarburton@zoology.uq.edu.au> (4) New Vietnam Presentation. Dr Paul Olivier. Private correspondence. Public presentation to La Universidad de la Sabana. Bogota, Colombia. April 14 2007. (5) “Black Soldier Fly and Others for Value-Added Manure Management.” Dr. Craig Sheppard. University of Georgia. Tifton, GA. Link to Article<http://www.virtualcentre.org/en/enl/vol1n2/article/ibs_conf.pdf>. (6) Bradley & Sheppard 1984, study cited on this forum: http://www.pondboss.com/forums/ubbthreads.php?ubb=showflat&Number=115752&fpart=1 (7) SunNet<http://biosystemsdesigninternal.pbwiki.com/SunNet> Listserv (8 ) Meyer, H.J., Roeder, Richard. “Insect and Manure Management in Poultry Systems: Elements Relative to Food Safety and Nuisance Issues” 2006. Link<http://nimss.umd.edu/homepages/outline.cfm?trackID=694> (9) Black Soldier Fly. North Carolina State University. http://ipm.ncsu.edu/AG369/notes/black_soldier_fly.html (10) Sheppard, D. Craig. J. Tomberlin, J. Joyce, B. Kiser, and S. Sumner. “Rearing Methods for the Black Soldier Fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae). Journal of Medical Entomology. Short Communication. 2002 (Note: Only available via online sellers such as Ingenta Connect<http://www.ingentaconnect.com/search/article?title=rearing+methods+black+soldier+fly&title_type=tka&year_from=1998&year_to=2008&database=1&pageSize=20&index=1> for $25). Additional Resources and References http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=msfqe-bs400&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a6QiE5j0Fpk&list=HL1336049837&feature=mh_lolz Videos on BSF!!! Colony Collapse
Cold Weather
Anaerobic Conditions
Water Content
Predators Threats: Monitoring the BSF system COMPOST ANALYSIS Analysis of BSF Meal Pellets Compost for Energy
Crops Feed for Livestock Oil for Biodiesel 33,551 lbs of dried BSF pupae to process I
4,473 gallons of oil (based on 35% lipid content of pupae by weight) with a biodiesel value of  $16,774 based on $3.75/gallon cost
10.9 tons of protein meal by-product from the oil processing procedure with a value of $5,500 based on value of fish meal into oil and protein meal
45 tons of dry compost per year for use as a soil amendment at the Student Organic Farm for vegetable and energy crop production According to a current Clemson Recycling Services study ~209,000 lbs of food waste could be collected annually from all dining halls on campus. Hermetia illuscens, ubiquitous throughout North America, are voracious consumers of nitrogen-dominant decaying materials, such as kitchen food scraps or manures.
Dried pre-pupae contain 42% protein and 35% fat, and as a component of a complete diet they can provide an excellent feed for chicks, swine, rainbow trout and catfish
BSF have been demonstrated to digest over 15 kilograms per day of waste per square meter of feeding surface area per day Why BSF? This system will be scaled up to 2000 lbs per week to handle the food waste output stream from Schelleter and Harcombe Dining Halls. BSF larvae are harvested for production of high protein organic animal feed, organic compost for production of energy crops, and lipids for production of biodiesel fuel. This group has constructed a biodigester utilizing BSF larvae to process 500 lbs of food waste per week. This project began April 2012 as a collaboration between Student Organic Farm Manager Shawn Jardnicek and BE Research Associate David Thornton Via a creative inquiry section on Creating Value Added Co-poducts from Waste Black Soldier Fly Production from Cafeteria Food Waste Camelina

Oilseed radish What do we need to try? Seed storage (5,550-bu. corrugated metal bin w/ ladders, roof, 3-HP fan, concrete pad, floor sweep) $27,415
Oil press $18,000
Frame, hopper $1,100
Filter press $16,500
Unfiltered oil storage (1,000-gallon cone-bottomed tank) $1,700
Filtered oil storage (10 250-gallon storage cubes) $5,400
Meal storage: concrete pad $1,100
Meal storage: tarps $650
Automation system: 100-amp service, wiring, controls $7,500
Grain auger $850
Meal conveyer $1,250
Fittings, valves, pumps, filters $2,200
Total Capital Cost $83,665
Annualized Capital Cost1 $12,469
Operating Costs
Cost of feedstock2 $28,980
Labor3 $3,150
Electricity4 $2,268
Annual maintenance5 $2,092
Overhead6 $750
Total Operating Cost $37,240
Total Processing Cost $49,709
Annual (Operating) Cost / Gallon of Crude Oil $5.35
Canola meal7 $18,144
Net Processing Cost $31,565
Annual Net (Operating) Cost / Gallon of Crude Oil $3.40
Table 3. Canola Processing Costs of 20 acre scale Capital Costs
Seed storage (super sacks) $300
Oil press $18,000
Frame, hopper $200
4-110 gallon cone bottom tanks $800
Fittings, valves, pumps, and filters $550
Meal storage (covered concrete pad) $150
Total Capital Cost $20,000
Annualized Capital Cost1 $2,981
Operating Costs
Cost of feedstock2 $4,600
Labor3 $2385
Electricity4 $288
Annual maintenance5 $500
Overhead6 $317
Total Operating Cost $7,773
Total Processing Cost $10,754
Annual (Operating) Cost / Gallon of Crude Oil $7.31
Canola meal7 $2,880
Net Processing Cost $6,624
Annual Net (Operating) Cost / Gallon of Crude Oil $5.34 NO!!!!!!!!! It’s better!
Thank you Canada
We can eat the meal?
How do I harvest? Canola? Is that Rapeseed? Shares Many Pests with Soy
Recommended 2-3 years between planting again
…will we saturate the market? How much sunflower can we possibly consume in the Carolinas?
Ever tried some? Drawbacks of Sunflower? Red Clover Followed by Disking or Tillage Land Prep Land Prep
Seed Spacing
Storage Planting and Processing Sunflower Since 2009, cultivated sunflower has represented more than 9% of global oilseed production. It is increasingly favored over traditional soybean oil due to its higher yield per acre and low nutrient requirement, and therefore is increasing in the market-share of virgin oils used for biodiesel feedstock. In this study Mid Oleic NuSun sunflower seed was used to test low nutrient input production of potentially organic sunflower. The test plot consisted of (3) 210 ft rows spaced 12 inches apart with seed spacing (4) inches apart and planted 1.5 inches deep using an Earthway walk behind seeder with sweet corn seeding implement. The minimum 70 units of nitrogen equivalent per acre was achieved using a cover crop of red clover prior to planting. No herbicide, pesticide, fungicide or additional fertilizer was used and the plot was not irrigated. The plot yielded 52 lbs of cleaned seed, with 10.9 lbs of refined sunflower oil and 38 lbs of pelletized meal utilizing a quarter ton Swedish Tabby Press. On a per acre equivalent this yield equals 99.3 gallons of refined oil (washed with warm water to remove hydratable gums and sediment, dried, and filtered to .5 micron) and 1.3 tons of meal (hull in). Clemson Organic Testplot $7-$30 per gallon
Highest value is cold pressed nutritional market – (how much market potential?)
Meal-$250 per ton…(higher value for organic?)
Smothering Crop?... Value Proposition – To be or not to be organic!? Min of 70 units nitrogen per acre – easily achieved with cover crop of alfalfa or clover
Drought and flood resistent
High yield.
Meal is valuable as feed product
NuSun is selectively bred, resistant to many fungus and insect
Compliments Small Grains and Canola
Double Crop with Grains Sunflower Advantages Midoleic is the most favorable. Clemson Trials Used NuSun Variety, capable of 110 gallons of oil per acre.
Sample Plot Yielded 99.3 gallon with 1.3 tons meal.
Planting 5 acres in Spring ’13 complemented with Oilseed radish, followed by grains
Oils first used in Biotech, Food, and Cosmetic Markets- Wastes for Biofuels Sunflower Time Agitation Heat Transesterification O

CH2 – O – C – R1


CH – O – C – R2


CH2 – O – C – R3 Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O) One unit of glycerol and three units of fatty acids
Insoluble in water, but soluble in most organic solvents
Lower density than water – typically 7.6 lbs/gal vs 8.3 lbs/gal for water
Triglycerides are an ester – i.e. the condensation product of an alcohol and an acid Major Component - Triglycerides 2nd Generation Biofuels NOT SUSTAINABLE NOT SUSTAINABLE Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel Fuel
Gasoline 0.805 (19.5 percent loss)
Diesel 0.843 (15.7 percent loss)
Ethanol (corn) 1.34 (34 percent gain)
Biodiesel (soy) 5.50 (450 percent gain) Energy Balance 350,000btu heat units $2,500-$10,000

10KW turnkey CHP $19,000
Batch Systems Biomass Gasification? Integrated BSF Process Compost harvested from the digester is used
To plant energy crops and beer crops An expeller is used to separate oils for biodiesel,
and meal pellets as livestock feed Mature larvae are harvested Brewery and food waste is loaded into the digester Drying, Threshing, Cleaning ? 1st Place = Sunflower and Canola

2nd Place = Soy …. Soy Biodiesel?
…( I am biodiesel?)

3rd = Oilseed radish and high glucosinolate brassicas for the future!!! Overview of Energy Crops for the South East Raw feedstock
Heated and Insulated
Gravy removed and stored in gravy Glycerin processing Settling, drying, mixing
Preliminary quality control tests
Heated and insulated
Methanol and H2O evaporate off Removes ionic impurities
First column is wood chips for gasification
Lead-Lag system MeOHCH3OH + KOH Stored for use
Quality tested
27/3 and G.C. glycerol content
Emulsion Test
Acid Test
Flash point
Oxidative stability
Water and sediment Biofuel, methanol, KOH added
Insulated and Heated
Mixed through cavitation
Reacted for 1-2 hours Raw feedstock
Heated and Insulated
Gravy removed and stored in gravy tote Flow control pump Flow Meter biodiesel biodiesel Biofuel/feedstock biodiesel Filter Filter Gravy Glycerin recovery tank Methanol Mix Tank Finished Biodiesel Reactor Settling Tanks Ion-exchange columns Settling Tanks Biodiesel Process Design
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