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Transcript of Sound
the sensation produced by stimulation of the organs of hearing by vibrations transmitted through the air or other medium
mechanical vibrations transmitted through an elastic medium, traveling in air at a speed of approximately 1087 feet (331 meters) per second at sea level Sound in Air Sound travels in solids, liquids and gases.
Sound cannot travel in a vacuum. If there is nothing to compress and expand, there can be no sound. Speed of Sound Sound travels at its greatest speed in solids and at its slowest speed in gases.
The speed of sound is dependent upon
– 1. Temperature
– 2. Density
– 3. Elasticity As a source of sound vibrates, a series of compressions and rarefactions travels outward from the source.
The close together part of the wave
The spread-out parts of a wave Temperature Lowering the temperature of a substance makes the motion of the particles more sluggish. The particles are more difficult to move and slow to return to their original positions. Thus sound travels slower at lower temperatures and faster at high temperatures. Density The speed of sound is slower in more dense material. Because the denser medium has greater mass in a given volume, it has more inertia. Its particles do not move as quickly as those of the less-dense material. Elasticity The speed of sound depends on
the elastic properties of the medium. This means that if the particles of the substance are disturbed, they must be able to return to their original positions easily. Solids are generally more elastic than either liquids or gases. Thus sound travels more easily through solids than it does through liquids and gases. Speed of Sound Medium
Air at 0ºC
Air at 25ºC
Water at 25ºC
Diamond Speed (m/sec)
12000 Infrasonic sounds with frequencies below the normal human range of hearing. Sounds in the 20-200 Hz range Ultrasonic
sound waves with frequencies above the normal human range of hearing. Sounds in the range from 20-100kHz – special case of forced vibration
– object is induced to vibrate at its natural frequency When any object composed of an elastic material is disturbed, it vibrates at its own special set of frequencies which together form its special sound. Determined by amplitude
Measured in decibels (dB)
Pitch- description of how high or low the sound
seems to a person
Determined by frequency
Measured in Hertz (Hz) Loudness & Pitch Loudness (Intensity) -how loud or soft a sound is perceived to be. – when one vibrating object forces another object to vibrate at the same frequency
– results in a louder sound because a greater surface area is vibrating
– used in guitar, pianos, etc. Forced Vibration SOUND Interference – the ability of 2 or more waves to combine to form a new wave – variations in sound intensity produced by 2 slightly different frequencies
– both constructive and destructive interference occur Beats Media that
Transmit Sound Natural Frequency Galloping Gertie”
The Tacoma Narrows Bridge Disaster Wind through a narrow waterway caused the bridge to vibrate until it reached its natural frequency Resonance END. Longitudinal Wave
wave particles vibrate back and forth along
the path that the wave travels.