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HIS122 Unit 1: Industrialism and Imperialism

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Noah Cincinnati

on 10 December 2018

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Transcript of HIS122 Unit 1: Industrialism and Imperialism

2,000 Miles
United States Territory/Colonies After 1898
HAWAIIAN ISLANDS (annexed in 1898)
(occupied after 1898)
(occupied after 1898)
(purchased from Russia in 1867)
(annexed in 1867)
(annexed in 1898)
(ceded from Spain in 1898)
(occupied after 1898)
United States Imperialism,

Towards Overseas Imperialism:
The Crisis of the 1890s
1. The Search for Overseas Markets
1893-1894: Economic depression shocked the system partly due to overproduction and commodity prices crashing.

American capitalists believed that access to new markets could solve the nation's economic troubles--
aggressive economic protectionism via physical control of foreign markets now seemed acceptable.

The great prize was
China (keeping the "open door")
2. The Rise of Populism
1890s: Economic trauma led to rise of Populism politics.

Western and Southern farmers began to organize into Populist alliances
to remove "the establishment," increase gov. regulation of the economy, and nationalize the railroads.

Core dangers of this new populism:
Obsessed with replicating a past that was impossible in a changing, modern world.

Prone to conspiracy-thinking and authoritarian tendencies.

Xenophobic impulses.

3. The 1890s as an American Social Crisis

In the wake of the economic traumas of the early 1890s, a pervasive fear swept American life that white, Anglo-Saxon American men could no longer compete, nor control their own destines.
4. The Rise of American Militarism
Imperial Rehearsal: Hawaii
1880s: American sugar planters and naval planners had their eyes set on Hawaii.

1893: U.S. Navy landed on the islands to assist a planter-led rebellion that dethroned the native Queen, Liliuokalani.
Looking for War:
Root Causes of the War of 1898
1. The Decaying Spanish Empire:

By the 1890s, independence movements sweep Cuba, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines, destabilizing Spain's empire.

The Cuban War for Independence (1895-1898)

Spain sent troops to brutally put down Cuban revolutionaries.
American investors watched nervously.
Selling War:
"Yellow Journalism" and the Cuban-American Lobby:

American newspaper giants, William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer, were in a vicious fight for readership in the 1890s.

Both men encouraged graphic, sensational stories to increase readership--the Cuban Revolution proved the perfect story.

Additionally, a powerful Cuban-American lobby convinced policymakers that U.S. intervention would be ideal.
3. U.S. Jingoism Run Amok

Jingoism is an expression of aggressive, militaristic nationalism.

By the late 1890s, jingoist fever swept the U.S.--war seemed like the logical course in dealing with the Cuba problem.

The Spark:

1898: U.S. sent in the U.S.S. Maine to stabilize the situation in Cuba.

Feb. 15, 1898: Mysterious explosion destroyed the U.S.S. Maine, killing most of its crew.
"Remember the Maine!"

American newspapers and the public called for revenge against Spain.

End of Feb. 1898: Secretary of the Navy, Theodore Roosevelt, secretly ordered the U.S. Asiatic Fleet to Hong Kong to await additional orders.

Without much evidence, Congress concluded that Spain probably sabotaged the Maine.

April 1898: Reluctantly, President McKinley requested and received a declaration of war against Spain:
the goals were to liberate Cuba and stabilize the Western Hemisphere.
The Eagerness for War
"A Splendid Little War"
Battle of Manila Bay, May 1, 1898
Hundreds of thousands of Americans volunteered for service in hope of seeing combat before the war ended.

Military recruiting depots in Tampa Bay and San Francisco become chaotic scenes of ill-prepared volunteers scrambling to ship out for the war--
riots even broke out.

The Battle of San Juan Hill and the Legend of Roosevelt's "Rough Riders."
Republic or Empire?:
Debating U.S. Imperialism
The Treaty of Paris (1898) Negotiations:

New and serious questions about the U.S. place in the world and its new found empire.
The Exceptional "Anti-Empire"
U.S. Anti-Imperialism
Creating "Our Insular Possessions":
U.S. Imperialism as U.S. Exceptionalism
The Platt Amendment (1901)
U.S. gov. required Cuban Constitutional Convention to accept certain clauses for "independence."
1. U.S. had the right to intervene to protect Cuba.

2. Cuban debt had to be limited to prevent European creditors from intervening in Cuban affairs.

3. Extensive sanitation program, through the U.S. military, required to attract American investors and tourists.

4. U.S. receives a 99-year lease for a naval base at Guantanamo Bay.
Congress defined Puerto Rico as an
"unincorporated territory"
subject to the whim of Congress.
"Foreign in a Domestic Sense":
The Insular Cases (1901-1902)
Puerto Ricans challenged their status in the Supreme Court.

The Court ruled definitively to uphold the "unincorporated" status of America's "insular possessions."
Governing the Philippines:
The Philippine Commission (1899-1916)
Colonial Violence:
The Philippines Insurgencies, 1899-1910
Due to a combination of vicious racial animus and U.S. military policies that authorized aggressive responses to irregular warfare, the U.S. military engaged an unrelenting war:

Scorched-earth tactics to punish villages for supporting the insurgency.

Extrajudicial killings, torture of prisoners, and small-scale massacres of civilians.

Forced relocation of hundreds of thousands of rural Filipinos into "protected zones."
Going back to the 1850s, there had been long-standing U.S. Interest in an isthmian canal to connect the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans.

1901: Panama was a province of Colombia, which had awarded a contract to a French Company to build a canal.

The French had two problems:
Poor engineering.
Tropical Diseases.
1904-1914: The U.S. initiated the greatest and most expensive engineering project at that point in human history ($375 million--$9.3 billion in 2017)
1914: With the Canal's completion, the U.S. now had control over the flow of naval and economic power in between the Atlantic and Pacific.
A Gilded Age:
Capitalism and Labor in America's New Industrial Era, 1870-1896
Reasons for Economic Growth (1870-1900):
1. Abundance of natural resources.

2. Abundance of cheap labor:
Surging immigration and low-wage native-born labor.

3. Expansion of national and global markets:
American and European bourgeois consumers.
4. Capital for investment:
Wealthy individuals and corporations were flush with cash and credit after the civil war.

5. The Spirit of Innovation:
Culture of ingenuity made possible a second technological revolution.

6. A federal government serving the industrial economy:
Limited regulation, high tariffs.

1890: 2/3 of Americans worked for wages.

1913: The U.S. produced 1/3 of the world's industrial output (more than Great Britain, France, and Germany combined).

1. 1870s-1890s: Cycles of Booms and Busts

Economic growth was dramatic, but highly unstable due to rampant speculation and the lack of regulation.

2. Corporate Trusts and Monopolies

Trusts: rival companies conspire under a single director to control markets (ex. railroads).

Monopolies: a single company dominates an entire industry (ex. U.S. Steel, Standard Oil, J. P. Morgan Banking).

3. Vertical Integration

Companies found ways to control every phase of an industry--raw material extraction, transportation, manufacturing, distribution (ex. United Fruit Company).

Creating "Employers' Rights":
The Gilded Surface:
The Triumph of Unfettered Industrial Capitalism
Mechanisms of the Market
2. Social Darwinism:

Pioneered by social thinkers Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner.

Applied Darwin's theories of evolution and natural selection to human societies and economies--individuals must adapt to market forces on their own.

"Survival of the fittest."

3. The Gospel of Success:

Popular religious conviction and work ethic model that emphasized individual ingenuity, hard work, and moral character.

Success dependent upon one's individual character and ethic.

"Rags to Riches..."
4. Liberty of Contract:

Legal theory that held if workers freely signed contracts, they then accepted
aspects of the job and could not renegotiate.

Established in
Lochner v. NY (1905)

Unions and government interference understood by the federal courts as unlawful violations of contracts between employees and employers.
Thorstein Veblen's
"The Theory of the Leisure Class" (1899)
Veblen offered a devastating critique of the upper class:
"Conspicuous Consumption"
The Limits of the Gospel of Success:
Laboring in Industrial America
Working Conditions in a Laissez-Faire Economy

Average yearly earnings of an American worker by 1900: $450 ($13,500 in 2017)

Most companies did not provide pensions, health or life insurance, accident compensation.

1880-1900: 35,000 workers died each year in industrial accidents.

Occupational diseases became pervasive--black lung, white lung, mercury poisoning.

Companies sometimes paid workers in company dollars: workers then forced to shop at company-owned stores in the "company towns" they lived in.

By 1900: 20% of workforce was female while 2 million children under the age of 16 worked full time.

The New Immigration
25 million immigrants arrive to the U.S. from overseas.
Who were they?
Southern and Eastern Europeans (Italians, Greeks, Serbs, Hungarians, Poles, Russians, Jews from all over Europe)

East Asians (Chinese, Japanese)
Why did they come?
Push Factors
Pull Factors
Political turmoil, economic uncertainty, and ethno-nationalistic violence across Europe, especially in Italy, Russia, and Eastern Europe.

Economic hopelessness in many European countries.

Anti-Jewish Pogroms in the Russian Empire on the rise.
The promise of economic opportunity in the U.S.

The promise of religious freedom.

Companies actively advertised across Europe to recruit immigrants.

Immigrant Arrival
Immigrants were assessed, processed, inspected for disease, and (if necessary) quarantined at massive arrival stations.

Ex. Ellis Island and Angel Island.

Immigrants depended on kin networks to establish residency and acquire jobs.
A Demographic Transformation
Across urban areas in the Northeast and Upper Midwest, entire districts transformed into vibrant, ethically mixed, chaotic, and poor immigrant enclaves.

The make-up of the U.S. population was rapidly changing.
Uniting Labor Against Capital:
The Knights of Labor (1880s)
Pioneered by
Terence V. Powderly
, the Knights sought an inclusive national union of unskilled workers, immigrants, women, and blacks.

Powderly held utopian hopes for a triumphant working class, but too often his union attracted radicals and anarchists.

The Knights were ultimately unmade by the infamous
Haymarket Affair (1886)
The Bread and Butter (and Racial) Issues:
The American Federation of Labor (AFL) (1890s- )

Led by Samuel Gompers, the AFL sought to create a national union of skilled laborers combined with white native-born worker racial solidarity.

Gompers emphasized higher wages, shorter hours, and better conditions.

Anti-immigrant advocacy ("wage depression")--particularly hostile to East Asians.

Having witnessed the downfall of the Knights, the AFL was committed to avoiding labor radicalism and violence.
Early Attempts to Reform Industrial Capitalism
1. The Civil Service Act of 1883
Federal civil service based on merit-based application process and promotion.
2. Interstate Commerce Commission (1887)
Federal government had oversight over railroad pricing practices.
3. Sherman Antitrust Act (1890)
Criminalized certain corporate trusts that hurt free trade and competition.
Rejecting the Melting Pot:
The New Nativism
Native-born whites of all classes feared the demographic changes of the New Immigration:
The Move towards Chinese Exclusion
Since the first wave of Chinese workers arrived in the 1850s, white workers organizations and middle class reformers both feared the "yellow peril":

Congress passes the
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)

Temporarily banned all Chinese immigration to the U.S. for a 10-year period (became permanent until 1930s).

1885-1947: Chinese-American students racially segregated in California schools.

The silver lining: Questions of Chinese-American citizenship led to the constitutionality of the principle of
"birthright citizenship"
(Wong Ark v. U.S. in 1898)
Into the Cauldron:
American Industrial Capitalism and Imperialism,

The "New South":
Creating a New Racial Order
By the 1880s, numerous Southern commentators began promoting their vision of a "New South":

As opposed to the "Old South's" plantations, slavery, and oligarchy,
the New South was apparently a land of:

Economic potential, small landowners.
Equal democracy and racial harmony.

In reality:
replaced the Old Cotton slavery system.

Once again,
white elites
enjoyed most political and economic power.

Black voters had been disenfranchised through poll taxes and literacy tests.

Rise of the Black Middle Class
The urban black middle class was a legacy of Reconstruction.

Networks of schools, colleges, churches, businesses, and women's clubs helped create a black middle class after the war.

Black professionals (teachers, physicians, business owners, etc) enjoyed the same privileges as
as any other whites.
So where did Jim Crow begin?

1890s: Urbanization and the growth of the black middle class
created anxiety among many Southern whites.

Segregation was envisioned as a way to eliminate public intimacy, control the public presence of blacks, and achieve the social death of blacks.

The first Jim Crow laws were passed by states to segregate blacks on railroads--
Gradually, laws segregated blacks and whites in other public spaces (restrooms, lunch counters, stores, businesses, public parks, cemeteries).

But was government-sanctioned segregation constitutional?

Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
Homer Plessy, a mixed-race citizen, worked with a local civil rights group to undermine state-level segregation.

He attempted to sit in a whites-only railcar in Louisiana.
Upon his arrest, he sued, arguing that segregation violated his 14th Amendment rights.

The Supreme Court ruled 8-1 that segregation was constitutional because Southern laws provided "separate but equal" facilities. Racial segregation was a matter of "public order."

Enforcing the Color Line:
The Racial Terrorism of Spectacle Lynchings
1893: A white mob traveled by rail to Paris, TX to participate in the lynching of Henry Smith.
Under Jim Crow, lynching became a system of mass communal violence perpetrated by many Southern whites for their own consumption and power:

Violence was designed to enforce the color line, to demonstrate control over black bodies, and to target black men and women for perceived offenses.

Lynchings were planned, organized, and advertised for in advance.

Public transportation provided discounts for lynching events.

Perpetrators and spectators traded trophies (postcards, photographs, and body parts).
Creating the Color Line:

The Rise of Jim Crow, 1880-1900
The Pullman Strike (1894)
The American Railway Union (ARU) went on strike as the Pullman Company cut wages, but raised rents in its company towns.

Railroads shut down nationwide as workers rioted and destroyed railroad property--U.S. Army put down the strike.

30 killed, $80 million in property loss.

Courts forced Pullman to give up its company towns.

Fed. gov. established the Labor Day Holiday in 1894.

AFL opposition to the strike increased its political capital.

1882-1960: Upwards of 5,000 lynching victims.
By the 1890s, policymakers, politicians, and ordinary citizens were swept up by a new set of militaristic attitudes in American culture.

A cultural obsession with militaristic behavior.

The elevation of a professional military and its members to a separate and highest category of citizenship.

The belief that all foreign policy problems require a military solution.

Admiral Alfred Thayer Mahan argued that overwhelming naval assets were the key to U.S. global imperial power.

U.S. Naval Build-up:
1883: 90 ships (38 wooden)
1898: 160 steel ships (including 6 modern battleships)
"Benevolent Assimilation"
The Treaty of Paris (1898) gave the U.S. exclusive control of Spain's former colonies--

the McKinley Administration and its imperialist allies had to convince the U.S. Senate and the public to ratify:

1) Exceptionalism:
Imperialists argued that U.S. imperialism was exceptional--so much so, that it was not even real imperialism, it was
"benevolent assimilation."

2) Indefinite Tutelage
: They reasoned that the U.S. had a moral, "civilizational," and racial duty to teach self-government to non-whites who were not yet capable of it.

3) Insulation:
Ultimately, they had to convince reluctant Americans that holding overseas colonies was possible without those colonies "corrupting" American democracy.

The Filipino Resistance:

Following the Treaty of Paris,
Emilio Aguinaldo
and his Filipino nationalist revolutionaries grew increasingly worried that the U.S. occupation was permanent.

Feb. 1899: Tensions between U.S. troops and Filipino nationalists erupted into open warfare.

Summer 1899: Aguinaldo's forces embraced irregular warfare to bog down and frustrate the U.S. military occupation.
Avoiding "A Benevolent War Indefinitely Prolonged":
U.S. Colonial Counter Insurgency
As the war dragged into 1900, American journalists, the Congress, and the public became increasingly concerned about the brutality of the war--more broadly, was "benevolent assimilation" even working?

Investigations into the conduct of U.S. troops eroded public confidence.

The moral credibility of the U.S. on the world stage seemed in doubt.

U.S. colonial violence now seemed not so exceptional--but indistinguishable from European imperialism.
The Cost of Empire-Building

Ultimately, 100,000 U.S. troops were rotated into colonial service.

10,000 U.S. troops were killed.

Between 250,000 and 1,000,000 Filipinos died.

Philippines society was fragmented and functioning self-government proved elusive.

Philippines Senate created in 1916--full independence would not come until 1946.
The Quest for a Canal
Roosevelt's "Gunboat Diplomacy"
Roosevelt favored the use of naval power to "police" U.S. interests in the Caribbean and Central America and enforce U.S.-mandated "norms."

1903: Roosevelt sent the U.S. Navy to support Panama's independence--in return:

Panama kicked out the French company.

U.S. received a 99-year lease to a ten-mile wide zone of Panama to build and maintain a canal.
1. The Anti-Imperialism League

Attracted reformers, social conservatives, pacifists, and white supremacists.

Feared that imperialism would destroy American democracy, corrupt government, and lead to the incorporation of millions of non-whites.

2. Samuel Gompers AFL:

Feared U.S. imperialism would lead to the free-flow of "coolie" labor.

3. African American Activists:

Feared the U.S. would export Jim Crow abroad or even grant new non-white residents voting rights.

W.E.B. Du Bois feared the creation of the "global color line."
1. Laissez-Faire:

Prevailing political philosophy that government should not intervene in or regulate the economy.
Let the "free market" operate on its own.

Ensured that the pro-business Republican establishment was aligned with corporate interests.
The Legacy of the Reconstruction Amendments
14th Amendment: Guarantees "due process" and "equal protection of the law" for all citizens.

15th Amendment: Guarantees voting rights for all citizens regardless of race.

The Supreme Court's first move to erode "equal protection":

1883 Civil Rights Cases:
The Supreme Court struck down the 1875 Civil Rights Act-- it argued that it was legal for private businesses and individual citizens to discriminate on the basis of race.
Southern White Populism and White Violence

A new generation of white Southern politicians used white populism as a political tool to control blacks and ensure white support for the new racial order:

Confederate celebrations (the building of Confederate monuments, promotion of the "Lost Cause").

"The Negro problem" and use of white grievance to unleash violence for political purposes.

Ex. The white populism and racial demagoguery of South Carolina's
Ben "Pitchfork" Tillman
Black Responses to the Rise of Jim Crow, 1890-1910
Booker T. Washington's "Atlanta Compromise" (1895)

Born into slavery, Washington eventually founded the Tuskegee Institute.

He believed that only through education and self-improvement could blacks achieve social progress.

"accommodationist approach"
--black uplift and economic success will earn white respect (an early version of the "politics of respectability").
W. E. B. Du Bois's "Ceaseless Agitation"

Born in Massachusetts, Du Bois represented the wing of highly educated, middle class blacks who rejected accommodationism as an acceptance of the new racial order.

Education, intellectual engagement, political activism, and
legal action
to assault Jim Crow.

Co-founded the NAACP (1909).
Ida B. Wells's Anti-Lynching Campaigns

Born into slavery as a young girl, Wells became an accomplished journalist who used her talents to document lynching in America.

Represented the strong current of middle class black women who became active in early civil rights campaigns.

For Wells,
lynching represented a continuation of the crimes of slavery and the greatest civil rights violation of all--the utter dehumanization and degradation of black people's lives.
For black intellectuals, middle class reformers, and ordinary citizens, Jim Crow and the disenfranchisement of black citizens was the greatest moral and political crisis since slavery.
Gilded Age Capitalist Ideologies
The Fears:
Labor anxieties among white working class.

Fears that the new immigrants were racially prone to disease, criminality, radicalism, and disorder.

Assumption of the incapacity for responsible citizenship.

The Immigration Restriction League (1894)
Attracted Northeastern elites, farmers, nationalist societies, and white workers groups.

Wanted immediate reductions in Southern and Eastern immigration, arbitrary deportations of criminals, radicals, and the "feeble-minded."

Per the League's lobbying, in 1897 Congress passed a mandatory literacy test for all immigrants (President Cleveland vetoed it).
Gilded Age Wealth Inequality
Wealthiest 2% of Americans owned 33% of all wealth.

Wealthiest 10% of Americans owned 75% of all wealth.

Bottom 40% owned nothing (in fact, wealthiest 1% owned more property than the other 99% combined)
Selling War:
Under the Teller Amendment (1898), the original U.S. declaration of war against Spain stipulated that Cuba could not become a formal colony of the U.S. after the war.
The Foraker Act (1900)

The "establishment" feared the presidential candidacy of Democratic Populist
William Jennings Bryan
in 1896:

The victory of Republican William McKinley in 1896
behind a policy of
more economic protectionism and aggressive overseas expansion
was designed to clamp down on the growing Populist appeal.

Pursuing an overseas war could serve
both economic and political purposes.
Teddy Roosevelt's
"Strenuous Life"

Men needed to apply a renewed vigor to politics, business, sports, and even war.

Could reverse male degeneration and inspire a new generation of men to embrace aggressive ambition in all realms of life.

The nation itself had to prove itself fit to compete on the global stage.

Rates of Confederate Memorial Construction
The "Water Cure"
Below the Gilded Surface:
How the Other Half Lived
The Lynching of Mary Turner (1918):
What Racial Terrorism Reveals about American Life
The U.S. colonial regime's responsibilities:

Administer the islands and their commercial exploitation.

Build up the Filipino security forces.

Elevate local Filipino collaborators (typically Hispanicized Catholic elites) to demonstrate
the potential for self-government.

Pervasive corruption and fueling of animosity among Filipino nationalists.

The Outbreak of the Philippine-American War (1899-1902)
The "End" of the Philippine-American War
By 1901, Aguinaldo had been captured and the insurgency appeared militarily exhausted.

July 4, 1902: Sensing the war had become a political liability, now-President Teddy Roosevelt declared it over.

The Unending Insurgency:
The Moro Rebellion (1899-1913)
Strikes and Scabs:
Labor Upheaval and Violence
Countering Labor Organization

Capitalist employers often framed all unions as radicals bent on the destruction of the American system--
this was designed to tap into public unease about the constant strikes and instances of violence.

Companies often hired
strikebreakers and scabs
to undermine worker disruptions.

The Pinkerton Agency
provided private security and infiltration of unions.

Presidents sometimes deployed military force to put down strikes.
Indicators of Economic Transformation

1920: Agricultural output soared, but half of the nation worked in industry--farm labor began a long decline.

1920: A majority of Americans lived in urban areas.

Life expectancy:

1870: 42
1920: 54
In Search of Order:
Anxieties Under the Gilded Surface

The pressures and dramatic changes of unrelenting industrial capitalism had a profound impact on the social and psychological well-being of ordinary people.

Ambitious Americans became obsessed with asserting control in all aspects of life.

Ex. Growing fears of rampant
plaguing American society.
The Fears of "Self Pollution"
The Great Bicycle Panic of the 1880s
1890: U.S. Census determined that the American frontier was officially closed.
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