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Transcript of Iran
Arid and semi-arid climate
Regged terrain and mountains
Natural resources include petroleum, natural gas, coal, metals
Culture & Society
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
The Iranian Revolution
Effects on Iran
Iran + Other Countries = Disaster
89% Shia and 9% Sunni
Population of 79,868,000
Official language is Persian
Originally named Persia
original name-Ruholla Hendi
Ruholla = soul of God
Khomein = a town south of Tehron
Ayatollah = the sign of God- religous-highest standing-only few 100
Father murdured and mother died
Wrote books-condeming Reza Khan
Western Middle-Eastern Country
Located between Iraq and Pakistan
Boarders the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea,
Conflict with the shah
1941-Khomeini wrote a book condeming the shah
1960s-opposed the White Revolution
1963-supporters of Khomeini killed in riots->martial law
1964-exiled to Turkey ->expelled->southern Iraq
Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani
1977-Khomeini's oldest son assasinated
Expelled from Iraq to France
1979-Shah left to Egypt
2700 B.C.E.- Iran was controlled by warring clans
637 C.E. -Arabs invaded Iran
Intoduced Islam and Arabian cultures
1501 - Safarid Dynasty
Instituted Shia Islam
Emergence of the ulama (Islamic religious scholars)
Introduction of Islam
The Qajar Dynasty took control of Iran during the 1700s
Weak rulers and failing economy
1800s- lost territories to Russia
Suffered numerous defeats to Britain
Qajar shahs allowed European companies to control Iranian industry
1900s- large scale protests against Iran's submission to European powers
Qajar overthrown by military leader Reza Khan in 1921
Qajar Dynasty and
Rise of Reza Khan
Return to Iran
Khomeini-Council of the Islamic Revolution
February 11-gov. formed
April 1, 1979- Khomeini head of the Council of the Islamic Revolution
Khomeini- highest level of religous and political standing=can do no wrong
Sept. 1979-American citizens held hostage for 444 days
June 3rd, 1989-Khomeini's death
Iran's first nuclear power plant, Bushehr I reactor was complete with major assistance of the Russian government on September 12 2011.
Launched in the 1950's with aid from the U.S.
as part of the "Atoms for Peace Program"
Rise to Power
ry 21, 1921- staged a coup
Overthrew Qajar government with little resistence
First became commander of the army
Later elevated himself to prime minister and then to Shah in 1925
Began Pahlavi Dynasty
Formerly named Persia
Changed to Iran in 1935
Modernization and Reform
Stressed modernism, westernization, and secularism
Wanted to eliminate traditional beliefs & practices
Increased military power
Established strong centralized state
Based off of European systems
Took control of industries
Used money to build roads & rail lines
After the Iranian revolution in 1979 the program declined,
but was soon relaunched with the new stable government,
and help from soviet power.
State schools, hospitals, labs, clinics, and vaccination programs created
Advocated women's rights
Attempted to remove the power of the ulama
Arrested, tortured, or killed any who opposed his rule
Sided with Germany during WWII
1941 Removed from power by Russian & British forces
Iran's nuclear program is under close international scrutiny
because of it's failure to declare sensitive activities within it's nuclear program
Iran is currently in the process of producing materials required to
specificaly construct a weapon of mass dustruction
Council of Islamic Revolution
Political Islam Restored
Division of leaders
Iran-Iraq war 1980-1988
Some women in parliment-still many sex-segregated places
Dependence on imports
Unemployment rates rose
Holding American citizens hostage
U.S. froze some iraninan assets
2003- proclaim that Iran is developing nuclear weapons
Iran and U.S. at conflict
Israel not refered to as a country
Threatened with nuclear weapons
Attack on Iranian nuclear scientists
Political tensions between Iran and "the west" are very high, due to U.S. support of Isreal
Iran continues development of enriched uranium for "peaceful purposes"
Iranian plots to assasinate key political leaders
Threats of preemptive military action angainst any nation deemed as a threat
Deaths of several Iranian nuclear scientists
2009 Large scale protest over alleged election fraud
Straight of Hormuz
Will close it if EU disrupts oil exports
Oil prices would escalate
The History of Iran
2700 BCE- Early dynasties control Iran
637 CE- Islam introduced in Iran
1890's Collapse of Qajar Dynasty
1921- Overthrow of Qajar dynasty and Rise of Reza Khan
1978 Iranian Revolution
1923-1941 Period of modernization
2000-2012 Developing nuclear crisis and rising tensions
Currently in the midst of presidential elections
In the legislative elections 3,400 candidates are running for 290 seats.
Locked in a power struggle between democracy and opression
"Ayatollah Khomeini Biography." Thebiographychannel. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar.
CIA. "Iran." cia.gov. United Staetes Government, 23 Feb. 2012. Web. 23 Feb2012. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html>.
Crawford, Jamie. "Iran: What is it Thinking." CNN.com. CNN, 29 Feb. 2012. Web.29 Feb. 2012. <http://security.blogs.cnn.com/2012/02/29/iran-what-is-it-thinking/?hpt=wo_c2>.
Esposito, John L. "Iran." The Islamic World: Past and Present (Dec. 2004): n.pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. <http://sks.sirs.com/cgi-bin/hst-articledisplay?id=SWA17199391&artno=0000280343&type=ART&shfilter=U&key=iran&title=Iran&res=Y&ren=N&gov=N&lnk=N&ic=N>.
Gabriel, Satya J. "Class Analysis of the Iranian Revolution of 1979."
Mtholyoke. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2012. <http://www.mtholyoke.edu/
"Thirty Years On: The Iranian Revolution and Its Impact on the Region."
E-International Relations. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Mar. 2012.
Zakaria, Fareed. "Containing a Nuclear Iran." Newsweek Vol.154 12 Oct. 2009: n.pag. SIRS Issues Researcher. Web. 24 Feb. 2012. <http://sks.sirs.com/cgi-bin/hst-article-display?id=SWA1719-0-9391&artno=0000298352&type=ART&shfilter=U&key=ir an&title=Containing%20a%20Nuclear%20Iran&res=Y&ren=N&gov=N&lnk=N&ic=N>.
When was the Islamic Revolution?
What does Ayatollah Khomeini's full name mean?
What was Iran's original name?
What straight is in conflict with America?
2) Ruholla = soul of God
Khomein = a town south of Tehron
Ayatollah = the sign of God
5) September 12, 2011
What date was the
Bushehr I reactor completed?
What country helped launch Irans nuclear program in the 1950's?
Who is the Current president of Iran?
7) Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
Which dynasty was overthrown by Reza Khan?
6) United States
Who were the ulama?
What was stressed during Reza Khan's reign?
9) Religious scholars
The Qajar Dynasty
Modernism, westernism, and secularism