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Human Rights and Development

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Heather Donald

on 24 October 2012

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Transcript of Human Rights and Development

Human Security and Humanitarian Intervention Human Rights and
Development Michael Barnett Humanitarianism Transformed Didier Fassin An Introduction to Humanitarian Reason:
A Moral History of the Present Melissa Scott & Heather Donald Legitimacy and Humanitarian Intervention: Who Should Intervene? Does military humanitarianism exist? Professor of Social Anthropology at Princeton University
Trained as a physician and former Vice-President of Médecins sans Frontiers (MSF) Didier Fassin Humanitarianism Humanitarian Government Humanitarian Reason Characterized by precariousness, uncertainty and diversity
Designates the deployment of moral sentiments in contemporary politics Morally driven,
Politically ambiguous
Deeply paradoxical Illusion of sharing a common human condition
Language & Issue Framing THEME •Vocabulary of “suffering, compassion, assistance, and responsibility to protect forms part of our political life” and we use them to reason the choices made
•Legitimizing actions by declaring them "humanitarian"
•Naturalized and
culturalized views of
human suffering Connections to Poverty and Inequality Illusion of a global moral community / solidarity / fraternity
Conscious of the fundamental unequal human condition
Misrecognition of historical and social realities New “moral economy” centered on humanitarian reason
Present in different contexts but with similar features
"Deployment of moral sentiments” in the form of humanitarian government and it has reconfigured the politics of precarious lives. Moral Economy Major Themes Moral Imperative and its Inescapable Politicization Shapes questions such as “to what end do we intervene?"
Politicization of Humanitarian Organizations
Fundamentally unequal human condition “Who has the responsibility to protect whom, under what conditions and toward what end?” (Mamdani, 4)

"Whose intervention...should we prefer when a humanitarian crises arises[?]" (Pattison, 398) Legitimacy of Actors
and Interventions Language and Discourse Framing Framing issues using subjugating language
Using emotional/moral discourse to validate militarized intervention Broader global changes linked to transformations in Humanitarianism Reconfigured global political order post-Cold War
Neoliberalism as only viable ideology
Increased politicization and institutionalization of humanitarianism Human Rights and Development Changes in concept of state sovereignty
How do broader changes in Humanitarian intervention affect the protection of human rights? James Pattison Lecturer in Politics at the University of Manchester
Current project: Ethics of humanitarian intervention in light of NATO intervention in Libya. James Pattison Central Questions Which actor(s) should intervene? Using effectiveness as a measure of legitimacy
Which current actors possess the qualities for effectiveness?
How can willingness to intervene and legitimacy be improved? 1. Local external effectiveness – MOST IMPORTANT
2. Global external effectiveness
3. Internal effectiveness Three types of effectiveness 1. internal support
2. external support
3. fidelity to principles of jus in bello (just conduct in war) Legitimacy also depends on: And to a lesser extent on: international public opinion, legal authorization, humanitarian motivation Current Actors 1. NATO
2. State or coalition of the willing
3. UN
4. Regional or sub-regional body 1. Highlight success of previous interventions
2. Encourage subtle adjustment in states’ perception of their national interests
3. Get away from treating humanitarian intervention as separate category of state behaviour Suggestions: Humanitarian Imperialism Review of African Political Economy Imperial interests challenge democratic deepening
Economic, ideological and military intervention
Humanitarian language and Western media legitimizes use of force Main Ideas Interventions in Libya and Cote d'Ivoire Prioritization of economic and geo-strategic interests of the West
Failure to understand local politics / history
A changed view of intervention post-Cold War
Use of force by external actors entrenches neoliberal hegemony The New Humanitarian Order Mahmood Mamdani. He is a Professor in Anthropology at Columbia University, but has previously taught at universities in Tanzania, Uganda and South Africa. Mahmood Mamdani Mahmood Mamdani He is a Professor in Anthropology at Columbia University and has previously taught at universities in Tanzania, Uganda and South Africa He is a Professor of International Affairs and Political Science at George Washington University. His research areas are: international organizations, international relations theory and Middle Eastern politics. Michael Barnett The meaning of humanitarianism has shifted and expanded: Barnett's definition of Humanitarianism: Increasingly politicized Increasingly institutionalized The "impartial, independent, and neutral provision of relief to those in immediate danger of harm”
This came about in contestation of a “particular meaning of politics.” Changes post-Cold War Notable turning point in humanitarianism Humanitarian agencies increasingly see themselves as playing a role in eliminating root causes of conflicts that place individuals at risk Humanitarian agencies and states began to share agendas - changes to neutrality and impartiality Questions of legitimacy and effectiveness were raised And 4 primary global processes... 1.Geopolitical shifts associated with the end of the Cold War & demise of Soviet Union 2.Emergence of “complex humanitarian emergencies” 3. Political economy of funding that contributed to increased politicization 4.Changes in normative and legal environment “coaxed” humanitarianism into political world. Similarities between the human rights agenda & humanitarian agenda •Logic of both share similar elements of placing emphasis on the human citizen, using the language of empowerment and rejecting power. Expansion and institutionalization: Sociological institutionalism
Role of the neoliberal agenda
Standardization of relief activities and systmes of accountability. Consequences of
transformation: Organizations more vulnerable to external control
Forces examination of the effects of power
Issues of bilateralization of funds
Donor Agendas
Competition for limited funding compromising essential mission Conclusions: Humanitarian organizations do NOT challenge structures but create a more stable, legitimate and organized society
Embedded in politics (increasingly so)
Encourage self-reflection/examination Politics of the “new humanitarian order” International Criminal Court and Omar al-Bashir Ambiguity and flexibility of International Humanitarian Law - U.S. usage and application in the "War on Terror" Language defines how international community acts: genocide, violence, counterinsurgencies Issues to Consider: Challenges, biases and politicization of ICC Justice-seeking slowing local peacebuilding? Relationship between law, politics and human rights Legitimacy based on measurable outcomes? NGOs, Governments and Recipients James Orbinski
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