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Dance History II

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Elliot Mercer

on 3 February 2014

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Transcript of Dance History II

Judson Dance Theater (1962-1964)
Anna Halprin(1920- )
Simone Forti
(1935- )
Merce Cunningham (1919-2009)
Alwin Nikolais
Post-Modern Dance
Trisha Brown (1936- )
Yvonne Rainer (1934-)
Meredith Monk (1942-)
Lucinda Childs (1940- )
The Ballets Russes
Vaslav Nijinsky (1889-1950)
Antony Tudor (1909-1987)
Frederick Ashton (1904-1988)
Lester Horton (1906-1953)
Bella Lewitzky (1916-2004)
Paul Taylor (1930- )
Modern Dance

Isadora Duncan (1878-1927)
Loie Fuller
Hanya Holm (1893-1992)
Mary Wigman (1886-1973)
Rudolph Laban

José Limón (1908-1972)
20th-Century Ballet
Britain and the United States

George Balanchine (1904-1983)
Agnes de Mille (1905-1993)
Jerome Robbins (1918-1998)
Pina Bausch (1940–2009)
Bill T Jones (1952- )
Katherine Dunham(1909-2006)
Twyla Tharp (1942- )
Martha Graham (1894-1991)
Pearl Primus

Doris Humphrey (1895-1958)
Kurt Jooss (1901-1979)
Alvin Ailey (1921-1989)
Bronislava Nijinska (1891-1972)
Leonide Massine (1896-1979)
William Forsythe (1949- )
Dance History II
Born in San Francisco and raised by her mother, a children's music teacher.

Viewed ballet as a sterile, restrictive, and outdated form of dance. Developed an expressive and revolutionary style of movement that she felt was relevant the early 20th Century.

Inspired by Greek classical art and nature, Isadora rejected the corset and instead performed in Greeks tunics and danced barefoot.

First influential choreographer to create dances to existing music by great composers, not music composed specifically for dance.

Spent most of her career in Europe and Russia, where she opened multiple dance schools for girls. Her students were called "The Isadorables."
No Formal Education in dance.

Achieved fame in Paris, first performing at the Folies Bergère.

Danced with heavy pieces of fabric, supported by wooden poles held in her hands, to make swirling movements.
Developed innovations in stage design and held numerous patents for theatrical lighting, including the first chemical mixes for colored gels and the first use of luminescent salts to create lighting effects. Fuller was highly respected in the French scientific community for these advancements.

First choreographer to have entire dance works videotaped, beginning in 1896.
Ruth St. Denis (1879-1968) and Ted Shawn (1891-1972)

Believed that dance could be a form of religious expression.

Created an eclectic array of dances reflective of their interests in exoticism. Drew inspiration for pieces from such varied cultures as China, Japan, Indonesia, Aztec-Toltec, ancient Egypt, India, and Native American traditions.

Trained dancers at the Denishawn School in Los Angeles, many of whom joined the Denishawn company and went on to become choreographers themselves.
A German Expressionist choreographer. Trained under Rudolph Laban and worked as his assistant during WWI.

Developed a dance technique based in contrasts of movement; expansion and contraction, pulling and pushing.

Her dances were known for being dark, fatalistic, and brooding, many focusing on themes of death, war, and the occult.

Most famous for choreographing 'Hexentanz' or 'Witch Dance' (1914)
Alvin Ailey, 'Revelations' (1960)
Alwin Nokolais, 'Tensile Involvement' (1953)
Clip from 'Company' (2003)
Meredith Monk, 'Education of the Girlchild' (1972)
Trisha Brown, 'Sololos' (1976) and 'Watermotor' (1978)
William Forsythe, 'In the middle, somewhat elevated' (1987)
Antony Tudor, 'Lilac Garden' (1936)
George Blanchine, 'Apollon Musagete' (1928)
George Balanchine, 'The Four Temperaments' (1946)
Paul Taylor, 'Esplanade' (1975)
Katherine Dunham, 'Stormy Weather' (1943)
Helen Tamiris (1903-1966)
Vaslav Nijinsky, 'The Rite of Spring' (1913)
Trained at the Imperial Ballet School in St Petersburg, Russia, and joined the Ballets Russes in 1909.

Married fellow dancer Romola de Pulzky while the Ballets Russes was on tour in South America and was immediately dismissed from the company.

Choreographed only four ballets: 'Afternoon of a Faun' (1912), 'Jeux' (1913), 'Rite of Spring' (1913), and 'Tyl Eulenspiegel' (1916).

'Afternoon of a Faun' and 'Rite of Spring' were seen as lewd and scandalous ballets at their premeire because of their daring representations of sexuality and departure from traditional balletic movement vocabularies.

Developed his own system of dance notation, based on Stepanov Notation, which he used to record 'Afternoon of a Faun' while under house arrest in 1916.
Notable works include: 'Les Noces' (1923), 'Le Train Bleu' (1924) and 'Les Biches' (1924).
Sister of Vaslav Nijinsky. Also trained at the Imperial Ballet School and danced with the Ballets Russes.

First and only female choreographer for the Ballets Russes.
Principal choreographer of the Ballets Russes from 1915-1921.

Collaborated with influential visual artists such as Jean Cocteau, Pablo Picasso, and Leon Bakst.

Major works: 'Parade' (1917), 'La Boutique Fantastique' (1919), 'Le Tricorne' (1919), and 'Gaîté Parisienne' (1938).
Trained at the Imperial Ballet School in St. Petersburg.

Fled Russia for Paris in 1924 with his first wife and joined the Ballet Russes, where created several ballets including 'Apollon Musagete' (1928) and 'The Prodigal Son' (1929) on the company.

Invited to the United States by Lincoln Kirstein, an arts impresario in New York, and founded the School of American Ballet in 1934, which premiered his ballet 'Serenade' at their first student recital three months after the school opened.
With funding from Lincoln Kirstein, Balanchine created several ballet companies in New York, all of which failed financially and disbanded, before founding Ballet Society in 1946. After signing a contract with New York City Center in 1948 to become a resident company, Ballet Society was renamed New York City Ballet.

Notable works for Ballet Society and New York City Ballet: 'The Four Temperaments' (1946), 'Agon' (1957), 'Jewels' (1967), and 'Stravinsky Violin Concerto' (1972).
Reconstructed and choreographed several full-length story ballets for the Royal Ballet, creating numerous roles for Margot Fonteyn and Rudolf Nureyev.

Notable works: 'Les Patineurs' (1937), 'Symphonic Variations' (1946), and 'The Dream' (1964).
Began as a dancer and choreographer with Ballet Rambert in London.

Appointed Associate Director of Sadler's Wells Ballet in 1952, a position he shared with Ninette de Valois. After her retirement in 1963, Ashton was named Artistic Director of the company, which has since been renamed the Royal Ballet. He held this position until 1970.
Served as Resident Choreographer at ABT until 1950. Began teaching as a founding faculty at The Juilliard School in 1951. Rejoined ABT in 1974 as Associate Artistic Director, a position he held until his appointment as Choreographer Emeritus in 1980.

Notable Works: "Lilac Garden (1936), 'Dark Elegies' (1937), Pillar of Fire (1942), and 'The Leaves are Fading' (1975).
Began choreographing in 1931 for Ballet Rambert in London.

Founded London Ballet in 1938, which moved to New York in 1940 under the invitation of Lucia Chase at the onset of WWII and combined with Ballet Theatre, which was renamed American Ballet Theatre in 1957.
A member of Tudor's London Ballet and Ballet Theatre.

Choreographed her first work, 'Rodeo' (1942), for the Ballet Russe de Monte Carlo.

Based on the success of 'Rodeo,' de Mille was invited to choreograph the musical 'Oklahoma!' (1943).

Choreographed the original productions of over a dozen musicals, including 'Carousel' (1945), 'Brigadoon' (1947), 'Gentlemen Prefer Blondes' (1949), 'Paint Your Wagon' (1951), and '110 in the Shade' (1963).
While her father and uncle were Hollywood movie directors (William C. deMille and Cecil B. DeMille), she was most often not invited to stage the dances for the movie adaptations of the musicals she originally choreographed.
Performed on Broadway and with Ballet Theatre.

His first major choreographic work was 'Fancy Free' (1944) for Ballet Theatre, which was adapted into the Broadway musical 'On the Town' later that year.

Choreographed for Broadway, American Ballet Theatre, and New York City Ballet for over 50 years.
Notable works for Broadway: 'The King and I' (1951), 'West Side Story' (1957), 'Gypsy' (1959), 'Fiddler on the Room' (1964).

Notable works for Dance: 'New York Export: 'The Cage' (1951), 'Opus Jazz' (1958), 'The Concert (or the Perils of Everybody) ' (1958), 'Dances at a Gathering' (1969).
Began choreographing for Stuttgart Ballet in 1976 as part of a young choreographer's schowcase and was named Resident Choreographer based on the success of the work.

Left Stuttgart Ballet in 1981 to work as a freelance choreographer. Was named Artistic Director of Ballett Frankfurt in 1984, a position he held until 2004 when the company folded.
Founded The Forsythe Company in 2004 and continues to choreograph.

Notable works: 'Artifact' (1984), 'In the middle, somewhat elevated' (1987), 'The Vertiginous Thrill of Exactitude' (1996), One Flat Thing, reproduced (2000).
In 1955, on the verge of gaining wide recognition as a Graham-based dancer and modern choreographer, Halprin very deliberately turned her back on New York-based mainstream modern dance and began working solely with improvisation processes in creating dances.

Founded San Francisco Dancer’s Workshop in 1959 and during the early 1960s Halprin’s summer program drew many artists that would come to be associated with the Judson Dance Theater, including Simone Forti, Yvonne Rainer, Trisha Brown, and Meredith Monk.

Major Works: 'Parades and Changes' (1965-7), 'The Myths' (1967-8), 'Ceremony of Us' (1969), Citydance (1976-7), Planetary Dance (1987), Seniors Rocking (2005).

Halprin's work has a choreographer has spanned over 70 years.
Trained at the University of Wisconsin-Madison with Margaret H'Doubler and at the Bennington School of the Dance with Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, Charles Weidman, and Hanya Holm.

Invited to join the Humphrey-Weidman Company, but rejected the offer to pursue a college degree.

Moved to California with her husband and collaborator, landscape architect Lawrence Halprin, in 1945, where she taught Graham-based dance classes and continued to choreograph works for herself.
Studied abstract painting before beginning dance.

Worked with Halprin in San Francisco 1956-59 before moving to New York, where she attended composition classes led by Robert and Judith Dunn.
Devised improvisation games that she would eventually exhibit as new dance pieces, such as 'Huddle' (1961), 'Herding' (1961), and 'Over, Under, and Around' (1961).

Drawing from her background in visual art, Forti’s dance experiments closely resembled sculpture and installation art. Dubbing her pieces ‘dance constructions,’ Forti staged much of her early work in galleries where audiences could view the work from all sides and different distances as well as sometimes participate in the performance.

Broke the traditional divide between performance space and audience space, forcing spectators to become more aware of the relationship between their bodies and those of the dancers.
Studied with Martha Graham and Merce Cunningham in college before joining the Paul Taylor Dance Company in 1963.

Founded Twyla Tharp Dance in 1965, which merged with American Ballet Theatre in 1988.

Has choreographed for dance companies as well as film and theatre, including Broadway shows dedicated to her choreography.

Major works: 'Eight Jelly Rolls' (1971), 'Deuce Coupe' (1973), 'In the Upper Room' (1986), 'Movin' Out' (2003).
Began her career as choreographer and performer in 1963 as an original member of the Judson Dance Theater and formed her own dance company in 1973.

Collaborated with Robert Wilson and Philip Glass on the opera 'Einstein on the Beach,' in which she was a leading performer as well as choreographer.

Received numerous commissions from major ballet and opera companies and collaborated with a number of composers and designers, including John Adams, Sol Le Wit, and Frank Gehry,

Appointed by the French Government to the rank of Commandeur dans l'Ordre des Arts et des Lettres in 2004.

Major Works: 'Street Dance' (1964), 'Carnation' (1964), 'Einstein on the Beach' (1976), 'DANCE' (1979)
As a composer, singer, director, choreographer, Monk has created works for opera, music-theater, film, dance, and gallery installations. Creates performances that intersect music and movement, image and object, light and sound in an effort to discover and weave together new modes of perception.

Premiered '16 Millimeter Earrings' at Judson Church in 1966.

In 1968, Founded The House, a company dedicated to an interdisciplinary approach to performance.

As a pioneer in site-specific performance, she has created such works as Juice: A Theatre Cantata In 3 Installments (1969) and Ascension Variations (2009) for the Guggenheim Museum, and American Archeology #1: Roosevelt Island (1994).
Began presenting her work as a member of Juson Dance Theater in the early 1960s. Formed Trisha Brown Dance Company in 1970.

Based in New York's SoHo neighborhood, Brown created many of her early dances for alternative spaces including rooftops, city streets, and walls of buildings, including her "equipment pieces," which used ropes, pulleys, tracks, cables, mountain-climbing gear, and pegboards to explore natural movement against the forces of weight and gravity.

Following her work with equipment, Brown constructed works based on mathematical systems of accumulation and pattern diagramming.

First female choreographer to receive the MacArthur Foundation Fellowship or "Genius Grant."
Was a founding member of Judson Dance Theater.

Notable works: 'Three Seascapes' (1961), 'Trio A' (1966), and 'Continuous Project-
Altered Daily' (1969). Published the "No Manifesto" in 1965.

Desired to strip movements of all drama and expressive qualities. Used game and chance structures to create many of her early choreographic works. All movements were aimed to be direct, functional, and to avoid stylization. Her dances questioned the role of entertainment in dance and pioneered the use of movement as an object to be examined itself without the the overlay of psychological, social, or formal motives.
Trained at the Cornish School and joined the Martha Graham Dance Company in 1939.

Presented his first solo concert in 1944 and formed the Merce Cunningham Dance Company in 1953 while teaching at Black Mountain College with the composer John Cage, his partner and artistic collaborator.

Pioneered the use of chance method and abstract movement. Paid close attention to the details of movement and the possibility for variations.

Choreographed new works using the computer program DanceForms beginning in 1991.

Major works: 'Septet' (1953), 'Summerspace' (1958), 'Roratorio' (1983), 'Beach Birds' (1991).
Studied with Hanya Holm at Bennington School of the Dance and collaborated with Murray Louis.

In addition to choreographing his works, Nikloais developed the costumes, sets, props, and lighting as well as composed their electronic musical scores, which were prepared using a Moog synthesizer.

In many of his works, dancers are concealed behind masks, tubes, and other materials. Pioneered the use of mirrors and black lights for use in dance-theatre.

Major works: 'Tensile Involvement' (1953), 'Totem' (1960), 'Tent' (1968).
Began studying at the Denishawn School in 1917.

Separated from Denishawn in 1928 and moved to New York with her dance partner, Charles Weidman, where they founded the Humphrey-Weidman Company and Studio.

Developed a dance technique based on "fall and recovery," which focused on the body's falling away from and then returning to a balanced equilibrium. Her dance vocabulary was based on the notion that all movement patterns fall into three divisions : opposition, succession, and unison and that all movement characteristics fall into three divisions: sharp accent, sustained flow, and rest.

Her book, 'The Art of Making Dances' (1958) was the first concrete, fully articulated choreographic method for modern dance-makers and remains an important document for choreographers and dancers.

Pioneered the first full use of the ensemble as opposed to the solo figure in concert dancing.
Notable Works: 'Water Study' (1928), 'The Shakers' (1931), 'New Dance Trilogy' (1935-6).
Joined the Lester Horton Dance Group in 1934 and was instrumental in the development of the Horton Technique.

Co-founded Dance Theater with Horton in 1946.

Broke with Horton in 1951 to pursue her own choreography and and open a school, Dance Associates, where she continued to refine the dance technique she pioneered with Horton.

In 1954 she assisted in the creation of the Idyllwild School of Music and the Arts, including becoming the chair of the school's Dance Department. She was also the founding dean of the School of Dance at the California Institute of the Arts.

In 1966 she founded the Bella Lewitzky Dance Company, which was based in Los Angeles and lasted for thirty years, folding in 1997.
Based his career, school, and dance companies in Los Angeles.

Created his first solo concert in 1931 and was invited to participate in the Dance Festival at the 1932 Olympic Games, which were held in Los Angeles.

Founded the Lester Horton Dance Group in 1932, the first interracial modern dance company in the United States, which included African-American, Native American, and Mexican dancers.

In addition to stage works, Horton choreographed commercial projects and created the dances for nineteen Hollywood films.

Founded Dance Theater in 1946 with his student and leading dancer, Bella Lewitzky.

Horton Dance Technique, which places emphasis on flat backs, pelvic hinges, and "lateral T's" is still taught at major dance schools internationally.
Trained at the Juilliard School before joining the Martha Graham Dance Company in 1955, where he was a soloist for seven seasons. Appeared as a guest artist with New York City Ballet in 1959.

His is diverse array of choreographic works explore humor, lyricism, doom, and ritual. Has set dances to an eclectic mix of music including Ragtime, Rock, Tango, Tin Pan Alley, Barbershop Quartets, Medieval masses, Renaissance dances, baroque concertos, classical symphonies, and commissioned scores.

Notable Works: 'Three Epitaphs' (1956), 'Esplanade' (1975), 'Airs' (1978), 'Company B' (1991).
Produced her first concert of dance in 1927.

Her choreographic style demonstrated a personal expression of abstract movement and frank social analysis.

One of the first choreographers to use jazz and spiritual music to explore social themes via dance.

Helped to lead development of the Dance Repertory Theatre and dance initiatives under the Works Progress Administration Federal Art Project in the 1930s. She founded and chaired the American Dance Association and helped to set up the Federal Dance Project.

Best known for her suite of dances entitled 'Negro Spirituals' which was created between 1928 and 1941. Another notable work is 'How Long Brethren?' (1937), a dance for the Federal Dance Project that explored problems facing African-Americans.

Following World War II, she turned to Broadway, choreographing eighteen musicals between 1943-1957.
Helen Tamiris, 'How Long Brethren?' (1937)
Born in Trinidad and moved to New York as a child.

Received a scholarship from the New Dance Group and made her debut with the company at the 92nd Street YM-YWHA in 1943.

Studied of African and African-American culture, and developed a repertory of dances emphasizing the variety of African diasporic dance traditions. In 1948, spent over a year in Africa researching and documenting numerous African dances.

Her Choreography focused on matters such as racial oppression, prejudice, and violence.

Lectured widely in the United States as well as taught courses in both anthropology and ethnic dance.
Began dancing at age nineteen while also studying anthropology at the University of Chicago.

In 1935-1936 she spent ten months studying native dance cultures in the Caribbean. Based on the rhythms and movements she learned during her research, Dunham developed a groundbreaking new aesthetic and dance technique that incorporated elements of ballet and modern dance.

Her piece 'Tropics and Le Jazz “Hot”' (1940), led to a featured role in the Broadway musical 'Cabin in the Sky' the same year, for which she also contributed choreography.

From the 1940s to the 1960s, her company toured the United States, Europe, Latin America, the Caribbean, Asia, and Australia, introducing global audiences to her creative interpretation of African diasporic culture.
Trained with Mary Wigman at the Wigman School in Dresden, Germany.

Holm danced in Wigman's company and eventually joined the faculty at Wigman's school.

Moved to New York in 1931 to open a second location of the Wigman School and bring German modern dance styles to the United States. With the rise of fascism in Europe and growing public unease surrounding German politics and culture in the wake of WWII, the school was renamed The Hanya Holm School in 1936.

Developed a dance technique, teaching method, and choreographic style that blended her German dance background with the needs and aesthetics of American culture.

Choreographed several Broadway shows including 'Kiss Me, Kate' (1948) and 'My Fair Lady' (1956).
Opened his own school in 1910 in Ascona, Switzerland, and taught in Zurich beginning in 1915. Returned to Germany following WWI and opened his Institute for Choreography in Wurzberg, which was later moved to Berlin.

Fled Germany in 1936 when his work was banned by the Nazi Party.

Influential in the development of movement analysis and in 1928 published 'Kinetographie Laban' a dance notation system that has come to be called Labanotation and is still used as one of the primary movement notation systems in dance.
German dancer, choreographer, teacher, and movement theorist. Pioneer of Ausdruckstanz.

Interested in the relationship between the moving human form and the space which surrounds it. Developed the 'movement choir,' a form of recreational dance that allowed untrained dancers to move together in harmony.
Believed that choreography and musical composition should evolve together to give expression of the dramatic idea in unified style and form. Disliked plotless dances and preferred themes that addressed moral issues. Naturalistic movement, large-scale unison and characterisation were used by Jooss to address political concerns of the time.

His most important choreographic work, 'The Green Table' (1932), won first prize at an international competition for new choreography held by the Archives Internationales de la Danse in Paris. It was a strong anti-war statement, and was made a year before Adolf Hitler became the chancellor of Germany.

Fled Germany in 1933.
German dancer and choreographer who mixed classical ballet with modern dance and theatre, creating a genre that is now referred to as tanztheater or dance-theatre.

Trained with Rudolph Laban and danced with his company 1920-1924. Establish his own dance company in 1925 and opened a school with British dancer Sigurd Leder, which moved to Essen in 1927 and became the Folkwang Schule.
A collective of dancers, composers, and visual artists.

Began in the summer of 1962 with a concert by composition students of Robert Dunn at the Judson Memorial Church in New York City's Greenwich Village. Over the course of the next two years nearly two hundred dances were presented by the group.

The choreographers challenged the prevailing aesthetic of modern dance, especially its use of narrative, myth, and psychology, while breaking new artistic ground. Collage, fragmentation, loosely-structured scores, radical juxtaposition, and chance were typical Judson methods; spontaneity, pedestrian movement, and a belief in the beauty of the ordinary were among the group's shared values. A spirit of anarchy and permissiveness reigned, along with a minimalist impulse to pare dance to its essentials.

Among the dance artists who began their choreographic careers with presentations as Judson Dance Theater or other dance concerts at Judson Church in the 1960s were Yvonne Rainer, Steve Paxton, Trisha Brown, Meredith Monk, David Gordon, Deborah Hay, Carolee Schneemann, Elaine Summers, Laura Dean, and Lucinda Childs.
A pioneer of modern dance movement and the creator of an important technique for training dancers. Graham technique is based on the principles of "contract and release" and her choreography is stark, spare, psychological, and percussive.

Studied at the Denishawn School in Los Angeles and toured with the Denishawn company. After moving to New York, she gave her first independent concert in 1926 and within three years formed her all-female "Group."

Three major choreographic themes dominated her career: Ancient Greek mythology, Americana, and anti-war protest.

Major Works:
Mythological: Night Journey (1947), 'Errand Into the Maze' (1947),
'Clytemnestra' (1958).
Americana: 'Frontier' (1935), 'American Document' (1938), 'Appalachian
Spring' (1944).
Protest: 'Lamentation' (1930), 'Chronicle' (1936).

Identified herself with heroines of history and myth, many of which she portrayed as central figures and performed herself in her ballets.

Retired from the stage in 1968, although she continued to direct the Martha Graham Dance Company until her death in 1991.
Born in Mexico and came to the United States as a child, settling in Los Angeles.

Moved to New York in 1928 and began to study with Doris Humphrey and Charles Weidman in 1929, soon joining their company.

Formed the Limón Company in 1946 and became a founding teacher at the Juilliard School in 1951, where he developed his own dance technique based on Humphrey-Wediman.

'The Moor's Pavane' (1949) is his best known dance work.

His dances have strong emotional and dramatic content, and many celebrate the human spirit.
Began his dance training as a teenager in Los Angeles with Lester Horton.

Made his Broadway debut in 1954 in House of Flowers. Other Broadway shows followed, as well as appearances with Sophie Maslow, Anna Sokolow, and Donald McKayle.

Ailey's best-known works draw on African-American traditions and subject matter. Often used jazz music and traditional spirituals.

In 1958 founded Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre, a predominantly African-American dance company, as a repertory ensemble for the presentation of his new works as well as both new and classic dances by other choreographers, such as as Lester Horton, Ulysses Dove, Talley Beatty, and Katherine Dunham.

Major works: 'Revelations' (1960), 'Cry' (1971)
Entered the Folkwangschule in Essen, Germany, in 1955, where she studied with Kurt Jooss. After her graduation in 1959, Bausch left Germany to attend the Juilliard School where her teachers included Antony Tudor, José Limón, and Paul Taylor.

Bausch returned to Germany 1962, before graduating from Juilliard, and joined Jooss' new Folkwang Ballett Company as a soloist and assisted on many of Jooss' pieces. In 1969 she succeeded Jooss as artistic director of the company.
Became the artistic director of the Wuppertal Opera Ballet in 1972, which was later renamed Tanztheater Wuppertal Pina Bausch. She directed and choreographed for the company until her death.

Bausch's dances are highly visual and textural, often filled with non-sequiturs that evoke a dream-like quality. In her scenic designs, Bausch has explored numerous non-traditional stage environments and surfaces, including pieces danced on a stage covered in dirt, a field of carnations, a pool of water, and a room over-filled with chairs.

Relationships between men and women in her dancers are often repulsively brutal, with male-female interactions pushed to their extremes so that they totter on the edge of the humorous and the anguished. Because of this, many have accused Bausch of being anti-feminist.

Major Works: 'Rite of Spring' (1975), 'Café Müller' (1978), 'Kontakthof' (1978).
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