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The Art of Pigments

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Kristi J

on 13 January 2016

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Transcript of The Art of Pigments

The Art of Pigments
Lemon yellow
Green earth
Pietro Perugino (Italian),
, 1503. Fresco. Chiesa di San Francesco, Montefalco, Italy.
Lead tin yellow
Lead white
Bone (ivory) black
J.M.W. Turner (British),
Dolbadarn Castle
, 1799-1800. Oil on panel. The National Library of Wales.
Lead-tin oxide Pb2SnO4
Rembrandt van Rijn (Dutch),
Belshazzar's Feast
, 1636-38. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London.
Rabbi Tzvi Hersh Weinreb on Tekhelet
Rose madder lake
Paul Gauguin (French),
Breton Woman in Prayer
, 1894. Oil on canvas.
Jasper Johns (American), Near the Lagoon, 2002-3
Vincent van Gogh (Dutch),
Café Terrace at Night
, 1888. Oil on canvas. Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, Netherlands.
Viridian (chrome green)
Naples yellow
Barium chromate (BaCrO4), strontium chromate (SrCrO4) or mixture of lead chromate and lead sulphate
Smalt (cobalt blue)
Prussian blue
Yellow ochre
Cobalt violet
Claude Monet (French),
Impression: Sunrise,
Red ochre
Titanium white
Brown ochre
Red lead
Tyrian (imperial) purple
clay colored by iron oxide, magnesium, aluminum silicate, or potassium
Cobalt green

mixture of cobalt (II) oxide and zinc oxide (CoZnO2)
malachite (Cu2CO3(OH)2)
Copper (II) acetoarsenite Cu(C2H3O2)2·3Cu(AsO2)2
An attempt to improve upon the toxic Scheele's green (Copper arsenite - CuHAsO3). Above: sample of Napoleon's drawing room wallpaper, 18th century. Longwood House, Saint Helena.
French, fashion plate from
La Mode
, 1848.
Emerald (Paris) green
Indian yellow
Cadmium yellow
Josef Albers (German-American),
Study for Homage to the Square: Beaming
, 1963. Oil on fiberboard. Tate Gallery, London.
barium chromate (BaCrO4), strontium
chromate (SrCrO4) or a mixture of lead
chromate and lead sulphate
lead-tin oxide (Pb2SnO4)
chromium (III) oxide (Cr2O3)
cobalt (II) stannate (Co2SnO4)
Murex trunculus
Hexaplex trunculus
Jasper Johns (American),
Near the Lagoon
, 2002-03. Encaustic on canvas. Art Institute of Chicago.
azurite (Cu3(CO3)2(OH)2)
Mandala of Han'nya Bosatsu
, 14th c. Ink, color, gold, and gold foil on silk. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Israeli, Tzitzit with tekhelet, 20th c.
Rabbi Tzvi Hersh Weinreb on Tekhelet
Miskin or student (Indian),
The Crow Addresses the Animals
, ca. 1595-1600 (Mughal dynasty). Gouache on paper. British Museum.
Picasso (Spanish),
Les Desmoiselles d'Avignon
, 1907
Gerard David (Netherlandish),
Christ Blessing
, ca. 1500-05. Oil on wood. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
cobalt(II) aluminate, CoAl2O4
Cobalt(II)-phosphate or Cobalt(II)-arsenate (Co3(PO4)2 or Co3(AsO4)2
ground-up human and animal mummies combined with white pitch and myrrh
Anhydrous iron(III)-oxide (Fe2O3), as found in hematite
limonite (Fe2O3 • H2O)
(Pb(SbO3)2 or Pb(SbO4)2)
Madder (
Rubia tinctorum
Basic lead(II)-carbonate
(2 PbCO3· Pb(OH)2)
Titanium dioxide (TiO2)
French, Toile sample, 18th c.
Cosimo Tura (Italian),
A Muse (Calliope?)
, ca. 1455-60. Oil with egg on poplar. National Gallery, London.
Paul Signac (French), Portrait of M. Félix Fénéon, 1890
Hiberno-Saxon, Detail of Chi-rho page from the
Lindisfarne Gospels
, c. 700 CE. The British Library.
Willem de Kooning (American),
Queen of Hearts
, 1943-46. Oil and charcoal on fiberboard. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington DC.
Felix Bonfils (French),
Dozing Mummy Dealer
, 1875. Photograph.
Paul Signac (French),
Opus 217. Against the Enamel of a Background Rhythmic with Beats and Angles, Tones, and Tints, Portrait of M. Félix Fénéon in 1890
, 1890. Oil on canvas. Museum of Modern Art, New York.
English (Dutch or German textile), Dress (
Robe à la française
), 1740s. Silk, linen, pigment. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Édouard Manet (French),
, 1874. Oil on canvas. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese),
Great Wave off Kanagawa
, 1830-33. Color woodblock. Metropolitan Museum of Art, Art Institute of Chicago, British Museum, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, etc.
Egyptian blue
calcium copper silicate
from lapis lazuli
Egyptian, Scene of fowling in the marshes from
the tomb-chapel of Nebamun, c. 1390 BCE. British Museum.
Johannes Vermeer (Dutch),
Girl with a Pearl Earring
, c. 1665. Oil on canvas. Mauritshuis, The Hague, Netherlands.
Masaccio (Italian),
Madonna and Child
, 1426. Egg tempera on wood. National Gallery, London.
Indigo (
Indigofera tinctoria
Woad (
Isatis tinctoria
(Indigo) Tunisian, folio from the "Blue Qur'an,"
second half of 9th-mid 10th c. Gold and silver on indigo-dyed parchment. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
(Woad) South Netherlandish,
The Unicorn Defends Itself
, 1495-1505. Wool warp with wool, silk, silver, and gilt wefts. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Hans Holbein the Younger (German),
Sir William Butts
, ca. 1540-43. Oil on panel. National Portrait Gallery, London.
Iranian, Large Safavid Blue
and White Pottery Dish, c. 1600-50
Roman, Garland bowl, late 1st c. BCE - early 1st c. CE. Glass. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Byzantine, Burial Shroud of Charlemagne, early 9th c.
El Greco (Spanish),
Christ Driving the Money Changers from the Temple
, c. 1600. Oil on canvas. National Gallery, London.
William-Adolphe Bouguereau (French),
Moissonneuse (Harvester)
, 1868. Oil on canvas. Art market.
Arthur Dove (American),
Naples Yellow Morning
, 1935. Oil on linen. Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts.
Andy Warhol (American),
Portrait of Brooke Hayward
, 1973. Acrylic on canvas. Tate Gallery, London.
Piet Mondrian (Dutch),
Composition with Yellow, Blue and Red
, 1937-42. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London.
Martin Drölling (French),
Interior of a Kitchen
, 1815. Oil on canvas. Musée du Louvre.
Aboriginal Australian, Birds (possibly
Genyornis newtoni
), c. 40000 BCE. Red ochre pigment on stone. Arnhem land plateau, Australia.
Prehistoric Argentinian, Hands, c. 11000-7000 BCE. Red ochre pigment, charcoal, kaolin, etc. on stone. Cueva de las Manos, Rio Pinturas, Argentina.
Goethite - FeO(OH)
Red lead
Lead(II,IV)-oxide (Pb3O4)
Greenockite (CdS)
Basic lead(II)-chromate (PbCrO4 · Pb(OH)2)
Chrome orange
Growing and Processing Indigo
Carmine (Crimson) lake
Polish cochineal (
Porphryrophora polonia
A Moment of Science: Cochineal Bugs
South American cochineal
Dactylopius coccus
(South American cochineal) José Antonio de Alzate y Ramírez (Mexican),
Indian Collecting Cochineal with a Deer Tail
, 1777. Colored pigment on vellum. Newberry Library, Chicago.
(Polish cochineal) Workshop of Albrecht Dürer (German),
The Virgin and Child (Madonna with the Iris)
, c. 1500-10. Oil on lime. National Gallery, London.
(South American cochineal) Peruvian, fragment of
The Chimú Prisoner Textile
, c. 1200-1290. Cotton with red, ochre, green, and blue pigments. Princeton University Art Museum.
Michelangelo (Italian),
, c. 1510. Tempera on panel. National Gallery, London.
Claude Monet (French),
Impression: Sunrise
, 1873. Oil on canvas. Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris.
Azilian, Painted pebbles, c. 9000 BCE. Red ochre pigment on stone. Cave of mas d'azil, Ariège, France.
Honami Koetsu (Japanese), Cylindrical tea bowl, c. 1603-1637.
Mummy brown
Dracaena cinnabari
(East Indies).

Also derived from
Dracaena draco
(Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Madeira, Morocco).
Plantagenet court painters (British), "Feeding of the Five Thousand" from the Westminster Retable altarpiece, c. 1270s. Linseed oil on oak. Westminster Abbey.
Dragon's blood
German, "Lovers in the Garden" from the Codex Manesse, c. 1300. Heidelberg University Library.
Titian (Italian),
Assumption of the Virgin
, 1516-18. Oil on panel. Basilica di Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari, Venice.
Roman, detail of the Dionysian Mystery Frieze, c. 60 BCE. Fresco. Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii.
Cinnabar - mercury (II) sulfide (HgS)
Chinese, Lacquerware box with children, Qing Dynasty (1736-95). Carved lacquer. National Museum of China, Beijing.
Phil and Tamara Pleasant (British), recreation
of 12th-century
Mappa Mundi
, 2009. Pigment, ink, and gold on calfskin.
Lamp black
Caravaggio (Italian),
The Lute Player
, c. 1596. Oil on canvas. Ex-Badminton House, Gloucestershire.
Nils Emil Lundstrom (Swedish), Stoneware vase with semi-matte brown ochre glaze, c. 1900. Stoneware with brown ochre glaze. Art market.
Michelangelo (Italian),
The Conversion of Saul
, c. 1542-5. Fresco. Cappella Paolina, Vatican Palace, Vatican City.
Kurumba (Mali), Adoné antelope mask headdress, 20th c.
Dale Chihuly (American),
Cadmium yellow seaform set with red lip wraps
, 1990.
Isfahan (Iran),
An Old Man Carries a Bowl
, ca. 1610-15. Ink and pigment on paper. Freer-Sackler Gallery, Washington, DC.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler (American),
Symphony in White
No. 1: The White Girl
, 1862. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
Paleolithic, Cave painting of a Dun horse (equine), c. 15300 BCE. Lascaux, France.
Orpiment ("King's yellow")
Egyptian, Papyrus, 13th c. BCE
Yellow Arsenic Tri-sulfide (As2S3)
Bernt Notke (German),
Saint George and the Dragon
, 14th century. Painted wood. Storkyrkan, Sweden.
soot from burned fat, oil, tar, or resin
Hans Holbein the Younger (German),
Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling
c. 1526-28
Johannes Vermeer (Dutch),
The Music Lesson,
ca. 1662-65. Oil on canvas. Royal Collection, St. James's Palace, London.
ashes of animal tusks or bones
Kuba people (Democratic Republic of the Congo), Mask. Wood, kaolin, and pigment.

Lead white
Indian, "A Doctor with a Female Patient" from
Fourteen Paintings of Occupations
, c. 1850. Victoria and Albert Museum, London.
Johannes Vermeer (Dutch),
The Milkmaid
, c. 1660. Oil on canvas. Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
Tom Arizary (American),
Rooftop Sunset
, 2010. Oil on panel.

Hans Holbein the Younger (German),
Portrait of
a Lady with a Squirrel and a Starling
, c. 1526-28. Oil on oak. National Gallery, London.
Giorgio Vasari (Italian),
The Battle of Marciano in Val di Chiana
, 1570-71. Tempera on lime plaster (fresco). Palazzo Vecchio, Florence.
Magnesium euxanthate (legend: from the urine of cows fed only mango leaves)
natural earth containing iron oxide (FeO) and manganese oxide (MnO),
historically found in Umbria, Italy
natural earth containing iron oxide (FeO) and manganese oxide (MnO), historically found in Siena, Italy
Martin de Murua (Spanish), "Capaq Yupanqui, the fifth
," from
Historia General del Piru
, 1616. Watercolor on paper (?). J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles.
Historic Chemistry: Verdigris
Egyptian Blue - British Museum

Sande Society Dance at Tuiyor, Sierra Leone
Daniel Smith - Naples Yellow Extra Fine Watercolor
Japanese, Awaji vases, 20th c. Art market.
Georgia O'Keeffe (American),
Special No. 32
, 1915. Pastel on paper. Smithsonian American Art Museum.
Maria Lalic (British),
History Painting 35 C18/19th. Cadmium Yellow
, 1995. Oil on canvas. Tate Gallery, London.
American, Kast, c. 1690-1720. Painted yellow poplar, red oak, white pine. Metropolitan Museum of Art.
American, Dining room walls at Mount Vernon, late 18th century. Alexandria, Virginia.
Ben Nicholson (British),
Festival of Britain Mural
, 1951. Oil on hardboard. Tate Gallery, London.

Byzantine, Detail of
Empress Theodora
, 6th c. Basilica San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy.
Spiny dyemurex
(Bolinus brandaris)
Tyrian Purple Dye: Ancients Used Marine Snails to Make It
Pablo Picasso (Spanish),
Les Desmoiselles d'Avignon
, 1907. Oil on canvas. Museum of Modern Art.
Pablo Picasso (Spanish),
Le Gourmet
, 1901. Oil on canvas. National Gallery of Art.
Patrick Heron (British),
Umber Disk and Red Edge: April 1970
, 1970. Screenprint on paper. Tate Gallery, London.
Seychellois, 25-cent postage stamp, 1938.
Nigerian (Yoruba),
Female figure
, 19th-20th c. Wood, indigo pigment, glass beads. National Museum of African Art.
Cu(OH)2 · (CH3COO)2 · 5 H2O
Sicàn (Peruvian), Funerary Mask, 10th-11th c. Gold, copper overlay, cinnabar. Metropolitan Museum Art.
Frederic Leighton,
Flaming June
, 1895. Oil on
canvas. Museo de Arte de Ponce, Puerto Rico.
Full transcript