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Darwin's Theory on Coral Reef Formation

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by

Monica Yokogawa

on 22 February 2016

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Transcript of Darwin's Theory on Coral Reef Formation

How are Coral Reefs formed?
Benefits/Importance
-Habitat
-Protection
-Tourism and Income
-Food
-Medicine
-Aid Nutrient Cycle
-Nitrogen and Carbon
-Recycles water and air
Causes of Deaths:
Darwin's Theory on Coral Reef Formation
-Drafted his theory before embarking on the Beagle Voyage to the Pacific
- Theory states:
*starts as an extinct volcanic island
*coral grows around island (fringing reef)
*islands subsides into the sea
*coral grows upward
*lagoon forms (Barrier reef)
*as land sinks more until it's below sea level, the barrier reef becomes an atoll enclosing an open lagoon


Bibliography:
"Where Are Coral Reefs Located?" : Global Coral Reef Distribution. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.
"Coral Reef Formation." Coral Reef: Formation. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.
"DarwinReef.htm." DarwinReef.htm. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.
"Corals." NOAA National Ocean Service Education:. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.
"Coral Reefs and Sinking Islands: Revisiting Darwin’s Other Theory." Oceans at MIT. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.
"Why Corals Die - Reef Ball Foundation." Why Corals Die - Reef Ball Foundation. Web. 21 Feb. 2016.


Coral Reefs and Sinking Islands
Darwin's Stage of Reef Formation
-built by multiple tiny animals (Anthozoa)
-limestone formation
-upon death, "skeletons" are absorbed by coral to help growth.

Examples of Sinking Islands
-Maupiti and rest of Society Islands (Barrier Reef)
-Bora Bora (Barrier Reef)
-Moorea (Barrier Reef)
-Hawaii (Sinking too fast for coral reef development)
-Tahiti (Fringing Reef)
-Destructive fishing methods
-Excessive non-point source pollution and wastes
-Ship-based pollution
-Increased sedimentation
-Unplanned tourism
-Land-based and urban construction activities
-Earthquakes, flooding, wave action, flooding and surface water runoff
-Natural Diseases
-Warmer ocean temperature fluctuations resulting in coral bleaching
-Tropical Storm Damage
-Crown of Thorns(Starfish)-predator outbreaks

Indo-Pacific
-Contains the highest marine biodiversity of any area on earth
-700+ coral species,
-mostly hard coral
-mostly atolls and barrier reefs

Great Caribbean
-Mostly fringing reefs
-65 species of coral

Red Sea
-mostly fringing reefs
-300+ species of coral
-highest tolerance to extreme temp. and salinity of any region

Three Major Regions of Coral
Major types of Corals:
-Staghorn Coral
-Sea pen
-Black coral
-Pillar coral
-Antipathes
-Blue coral
-Leptepsommia
-Elkhorn coral
- Shoreline of islands
-Few organisms can survive in the weather.
- Sexual reproduction between coral animal and planktonic larvae.
- Attaches themselves to a solid surface (limestone rocks).
- This forms when . . .
- Shape of it . . .
- Cays

- It forms when the ocean islands begin to sink.
- Then it grows upward.
- Creates Lagoons.

People:
-Monica Yokogawa
-Andrew Tran
-Zieshan Syed
-Eric Kim
Sea Anemone:
Stony Coral:
Soft Coral:
Pennatules:

Ceriantheria:
Sexually reproduces with:
Anthozoa
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