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Industrial Revolution/Differences between the North and South

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Eric Long

on 20 May 2013

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Transcript of Industrial Revolution/Differences between the North and South

Industrial Revolution 1764: Richard Arkwright, a British inventor, creates the water frame, a spinning machine powered by running water rather than human energy.
Production increases! A major change in the economy and way of life brought on by advancements in technology and machines Begins in the late 1700s in Great Britain's textile or cloth making industry.
Before the Industrial Revolution, cloth was made by hand using simple human powered machines. This leads to the factory system which brings workers and machinery together in one place.

The factory system requires huge amounts of money to be invested in the buildings and machines. Mill owners turn to capitalists for money to invest in order to earn bigger profits. Factories turn out to be a good investment. Workers are producing 24 times as much thread. In 1790, Arkwright builds the first steam-powered textile plant. Factories no longer have to be built on riverbanks.
Britain tries to guard the secrets of industrial success and forbids information or skilled workers to leave the country. Samuel Slater:
Memorizes Arkwright's plans and dressed as an unskilled farm worker leaves Britain for New York. Relying entirely on memory, Slater constructs a spinning machine based on Arkwright's.
Slater's factories begin producing cotton thread at a rate never before seen in the United States. This marks the birth of the American textile
industry and American industrialization.
Factories begin to pop up in the Northeast where capitalists have the money to invest and buy raw materials. Nationalism Sectionalism NORTH SOUTH Economy based on manufacturing,
this leads to urbanization & immigration Eli Whitney- interchangeable parts MASS PRODUCTION Economy based on cotton & slave labor Eli Whitney-cotton gin BEFORE AFTER One slave One lb cotton/day One slave + cotton gin 50 lbs cotton/day Need more Slaves! Northern Cities The Cotton Kingdom Urbanization- As capitalists built more factories, rural workers are attracted to the new types of work available in industrialized cities. Growing cities face urban problems
-Filthy streets
-Poor sewage system
-Lack of clean water
-All lead to the spread of disease Cotton becomes a great source of wealth Cotton & Slave Labor enrich:
-Plantation owners in the South
-Bankers & Shipbuilders in the North Cotton Kingdom Society
-Dominated by large plantation owners
-A small but wealthy class which live in luxury and send their children to the finest schools Citywide fires were a common problem Most structures were made of wood
-Firefighters are poorly trained & ill equipped
-Insurance companies pay firefighters for saving insured buildings Racing to fire scenes to earn insurance
money, rival fire companies often ended up
fighting instead of extinguishing fires. Growth of Northern Industry The telegraph revolutionizes communication. The devise uses electrical signals to send messages quickly over long distances. Defending Slavery scared of Congress' power to limit slavery 4 million slaves in South= 2,400,000 counted toward population Slaves= more VOTES in Congress 11 FREE STATES 11 SLAVE STATES 1819: Missouri Applies for statehood as a
SLAVE state The North & South
take different paths In the North, industry, immigration & cities all grow. In the South, the economy becomes more dependent on cotton and slave labor. To house the large machines, manufactures built textile mills on the banks of rivers. Samuel F.B. Morse develops Morse Code Factories in the east could now communicate with their markets in the west in a matter of hours rather than weeks. Cyrus McCormick invents the
mechanical reaper. The reaper cut stalks of wheat many times faster than a human worker could.
Farm laborers who are replaced by machines go to cities to work in shops and factories. By 1860, factories in New England and the Middle Atlantic states were producing most of the nation's manufactured goods.

In 1860, Americans had over a billion dollars invested in businesses. Of that total, more than 90% was invested in businesses in the North. Do Now 5/16/13 Choose 3 of the following terms and create a meaningful paragraph based on the Industrial Revolution:
-Urbanization
-Telegraph
-Famine
-Nativist
-Discrimination How did urbanization, technology and social change affect the North? Cotton Kingdom Society
-More than half of all Southern farmers don't have slaves. They grown corn and raise hogs & chickens.
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