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Poultry Processing flow chart

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by

Driaan Strydom

on 25 April 2015

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Transcript of Poultry Processing flow chart

Flow chart of a poultry processing unit
Stunning, Killing and bleeding.
DE - feathering
Feet processing
Sorting
is when the processed birds are divided into the following 3 groups:
1. Whole Bird
Scalding
Feed withdrawal and loading of broilers on the farm.

Withdrawn feed
from the birds about,
6 – 8 hours before slaughter.

• It allows clearance of intestinal contents from the gut.

• This
prevents
faecal
contamination of the carcass
during processing.

• Offer the birds,
full access to water to prevent dehydration
and loss in carcass yield and body weight.



Hand catching

vs
Machine harvesting

Birds are caught by hand
and
placed in crates
which are loaded onto the truck for transporting them to the processing plant.
Hand catching
Machine Harvesting
The
newest technology
in bird catching is
chicken harvesters.

It is machines that
load the chickens into crates
in a natural, stress – free manner, with
no direct contact of the operator.

Some of these machines have a loading speed of
5000 – 6600 birds per hour
.

Labor costs are reduced, because most of these machines only
require 2 – 3 operators
.
Transport of broilers to the poultry processing plant.

Physical discomfort
, such as overcrowding, hunger and thirst are factor that
causes stress
in broilers
during transport and must be avoid
.


Thermal stress
is probably the
most serious factor
that is caused by either high or low temperatures, depending on the time of the year.

• Up to
40% of “dead on arrivals”
is due to
transport stress
.


Reduce stocking density in the crates
during hot weather to control the build – up of heat and humidity.

• The
first step
in humane
slaughter is “stunning”
to render the
bird unconscious prior to killing
.

• Stunning in the poultry industry is
most commonly done by an electrical shock method
.

• Large abattoirs use an
electric water bath
through which the head of the
bird is dragged while hanging by its feet
.

• Within
seconds after stunning, the birds are moved to the killing machine
that uses a rotating circular blade to cut the jugular veins and carotid arteries on one or both sides of the neck of the bird.

• Birds must
bleed for at least 90 seconds
and will
lose 80% of its blood
.

• Feathers are
difficult to remove
in their natural condition due to their
attachment in the follicles
.


To loosen the feathers
, the birds go through the
scalding proses
.

• This is a
process by which carcasses are submersed in a bath of hot water
or passes through a tunnel in which hot water is sprayed onto the carcases.

• There are two scalding methods namely, “
Soft scalding”
( 45 – 53 ̊C for 150 – 180 seconds )
that is used
for fresh poultry with a yellow skin
.

• “
Hard scalding”
( 62 – 64 ̊C for 90 – 120 seconds )
that is
used for skin that is not pigmented.


• Feathers are removed by
picking machines
that consist of rows of rotating clusters of flexible, ribbed,
rubber “fingers”.


• While this rubber fingers
rotate rapidly
, the fingers
rub against the carcass
and the abrasion
pulls out the loosened feathers.




Normally
the
feet are removed, after the DE – feathering
of the chickens.


Some
of the
processing plants keep the feet on
the chicken
to help with the handling
of the birds
through the plant
and remove the feet
after evisceration
.

• Then the feet
go to the feet processing machine
that process the feet through a fully mechanical process.

Evisceration
• Evisceration is the
removal of the edible and inedible viscera
from the carcass of the chicken.

• The
proper removal of the viscera is important to ensure low bacteria counts on the carcass
and to improve the shelf – life of the carcass.

• About
25% of the live body weight
of poultry is inevitably
lost during slaughtering and evisceration.


The steps for the evisceration of the bird:

1. The
body cavity is opened
by making a cut from the posterior tip of the breastbone to the cloaca.

2. The
viscera are scooped out
. ( gastrointestinal tract and associated organs, reproductive tract, heart and lungs )

Giblet processing
• The
edible viscera
or “giblets” (heart, (heart, liver and gizzard)
are harvested
from the
extracted viscera
.

• The
giblets are packted in the carcass
or
sold separately
.

Washing
The carcasses are
cleaned for microbial and visible concerns
.
Chilling
Chilling is
done to reduce microbial growth
to a level that will
maximize both food safety and the shelf life
of the meat.
2 Methods of chilling poultry

Cold water bath
: Where the
carcass
are immersed
in two consecutive water baths
and moved from one end of the bath to the other. The water temperature at the end where the carcass leaves the first bath must be below 10 C and below 4 ̊C in the second water bath.

Air chilling
occurs by
passing cold air over the carcass.
• This is when
the carcass is sold as a whole
.

• The
whole carcass will be packed and distribute
after the chilling process have been completed

2. Parts being deboned and cut up.
• Parts being cut up refer to
individual components of the carcass that are cut up to be market individually
.

• Cut up
normally includes the removal of the wings, drumsticks, thighs and breast
.

• The
deboning
of white meat refers to the
r
emoval of the bones from the cut – up meat.


Thighs and breasts
are the parts that are
commonly deboned.

3. Further processed products
• The cut – up and deboned
pieces
as well as
the whole carcass
can go for
further processing to add value to the product
.

• Further processing
may include forming, curing, smoking, and cooking of products
.

Packaging, cold storage and distribution
• After the birds have been kept as a whole, cut – up into parts, deboned or further processed,
the meat will be packed into different forms of packaging referred by the market / supermarket
.

• For
storage purposes
the poultry meat must be
refrigerated at approximately 1.111111 ̊C.

• By
keeping
the meat
below 4.444444 ̊C
the
risk of microbial growth will be reduced
.

• It is very important that the
cold chain must not be broken during the distribution
of the poultry meat from the processing plants cold storage to the supermarkets.

• If the cold chain is broken during distribution, the meat will be at risk of microbial growth.

Meat Quality
Texture (Tenderness).
Appearance
(Colour).

Main Factors affecting meat quality in poultry.
The consumer's perspective of quality
Flavour

When consumers buy
a poultry product, cook and serve it to their families,
they expect
it to
look, taste, and feel good in their mouth
.

• If these
characteristics do not meet
the
consumer's expectation
, the product is
considered to be of lower quality
.


The consumer's perspective of quality

Colour
of cooked or raw poultry meat is
important
because
consumers associate it with the product's freshness
, and they decide whether or not to buy the product based on their opinion of its attractiveness.
• Poultry meat
colour is affected by
factors such as bird
age, sex, strain, diet, intramuscular fat, meat moisture content, pre - slaughter conditions
and processing variables.

Colour
of meat
depends upon
the
presence of
the muscle pigments
myoglobin and haemoglobin
.

Another major cause
of poultry meat discolouration is
bruising
.


Appearance (Colour)

After consumers buy
a poultry product, they
relate the quality
of that product to its
texture and flavour

when
they are
eating
it.

Tenderness of portioned or boneless cuts
of poultry is
influenced by the time post-mortem of the deboning.

• When poultry is
deboned early
(0 to 2 hours post-mortem),
50 to 80 percent
of the meat
will be tough
.

• On the other hand,
if the processor waits 6 hours
before deboning,
70 to 80 percent
of the poultry meat
will be tender.


Texture (Tenderness)
• Both
taste and odour
contribute to the flavour of poultry
, and it is generally difficult to distinguish between the two during consumption.


When poultry is cooked
,
flavour develops from sugar and amino acid interactions
, lipid and thermal oxidation and thiamine degradation.


Few factors during production and processing

affect
poultry meat
flavour
.


Age
of the bird
at slaughter
(young or mature birds)
affect the flavour
of the meat.

Flavour
THANK YOU
Any Questions ?
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