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ap human geography

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antoinette hartsfield

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Transcript of ap human geography

Thank You
AP Human Geography
The first unit talked about the basics of human geography.
Human geography focuses on people.
Physical geography focuses on the natural environment itself.
Unit 1:Geography and its Perspectives
Eratosthenes
(Greek) He calculated the circumference of earth by the sun's angle.
Famous Geographers
Ptolemy
(Greek) He lived 500 years after;he recalculated the circumference of earth to be more tinier. He also made the book "Guide To Geography" it showed his development of the grid system.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ptolemy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eratosthenes
Carl Sauer
He thought that geography should be mainly focused on the cultural landscape. He later studied the basics of environmental landscape.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carl_Sauer
Map Projections
This projection have long latitude and longitude lines and is similar to a globe shape.
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/mapproj/gif/robinson.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/mapproj/mapproj_f.html&h=341&w=540&sz=14&tbnid=4zOIwCzEgvnEzM:&tbnh=78&tbnw=124&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dmap%2Bprojections%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=map+projections&usg=__FK22fjY2x9wyvp81Tu3NbzUyJic=&docid=RU6jjO8-xQ3N8M&hl=en&sa=X&ei=qkrJT5nPOoeS9gS_luCBDw&sqi=2&ved=0CGIQ9QEwAg&dur=3507
Makes Antarctica look larger.
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/mapproj/gif/mercator.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.colorado.edu/geography/gcraft/notes/mapproj/mapproj_f.html&h=341&w=540&sz=17&tbnid=UlJOryG97UzRDM:&tbnh=79&tbnw=125&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dmercator%2Bprojections%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=mercator+projections&usg=__HbhbtEGdH5xBGnUsKk2ATSQuoyo=&docid=RU6jjO8-xQ3N8M&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5EzJT5OOA42k8ASmkKSBDw&sqi=2&ved=0CHUQ9QEwAw&dur=1484
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.petersmap.com/peterms.gif&imgrefurl=http://www.petersmap.com/&h=233&w=376&sz=61&tbnid=VFud2XI4MQWLvM:&tbnh=76&tbnw=122&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dpeters%2Bprojection%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=peters+projection&usg=__oWOpaXt5VSEdp03zs-gzxN-3-_w=&docid=5ouWPdzh12h6PM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ek7JT9POGoe69QSxx6SdDw&sqi=2&ved=0CFsQ9QEwAA&dur=405
Peters Projection
Controversy larger than the other maps but it correctly compares landmasses in area.
Regions
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=soil+regions&hl=en&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4ACGW_en___US463&biw=1251&bih=561&tbm=isch&tbnid=iIDVqefxhTg-4M:&imgrefurl=http://soils.usda.gov/use/worldsoils/mapindex/order.html&docid=wjqq8nq_SUNaNM&imgurl=http://soils.usda.gov/use/worldsoils/mapindex/orders.jpg&w=740&h=574&ei=3lLJT9utB4-E8QTEvqWIDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=83&vpy=131&dur=2902&hovh=198&hovw=255&tx=171&ty=107&sig=108892852465669511933&page=1&tbnh=110&tbnw=142&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:0,i:71
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=farm+resource+regions&hl=en&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4ACGW_en___US463&biw=1251&bih=561&tbm=isch&tbnid=jJEl9Ajk_a9dLM:&imgrefurl=http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/snyderd/MWH/Projects/ARGUS%2520K.htm&docid=93WMl5yXUYO39M&imgurl=http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/snyderd/MWH/Projects/images2/Farm%252520Resource%252520Regions.jpg&w=962&h=721&ei=nlPJT92uJoqS9gTsv-yEDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=367&vpy=2&dur=608&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=136&ty=74&sig=108892852465669511933&page=1&tbnh=105&tbnw=140&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:75
Unit 2: Population
Population geography focuses mainly on growth and movement that closely relate to earths environmental and natural resources.
Population Pyramids
Population pyramids shows a populations age and sex composition.
http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=population+pyramids&view=detail&id=946517C1CA6E9104BAFE69489CD0E6F43C04B9BF&first=0&qpvt=population+pyramids&FORM=IDFRIR
Push and Pull Factors
Push factor- is something that makes a person want to leave a country.
Pull factor- is something that attracts a person to come to a country.
http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/figures/1478-4491-1-12-9-l.jpg
Theory of population on growth (Malthus)- Thomas Malthus was the first person to say that the worlds population would increase faster than the food supplies needed. To prove himself he used the exponential growth v. linear growth.
Ravensteins Law of Migration- 1. Most migrants move only a short distance.
2.There is a process of absorption, whereby people immediately surrounding a rapidly growing town move into it and the gaps they leave are filled by migrants from more distant areas, and so on until the attractive force [pull factors] is spent.
3.There is a process of dispersion, which is the inverse of absorption.
4.Each migration flow produces a compensating counter-flow.
5.Long-distance migrants go to one of the great centers of commerce and industry.
6.Natives of towns are less migratory than those from rural areas.
7.Females are more migratory than males.
8.Economic factors are the main cause of migration.
Laws and Theories
Demographic Transition
511933&page=4&tbnh=160&tbnw=234&start=35&ndsp=13&ved=1t:429,r:9,s:35,i:189
stage 1-birth rates and death rates are high
stage 2- birth rates are high, death rates are low
stage 3-birth rates start to fall because of various reasons
stage 4-both birth rates and death rates are low
This unit mainly focused on the modification of the natural landscape by human activities and also the transformation of the land and the ways that humans interact with the environment.
Unit 3:Cultural Landscapes and Process
Cultural Hearths and Diffusion
Cultural Diffusion:
Cultural diffusion is the term used to describe the spread of cultural ideas from the Core (in the case of culture regions) and the culture hearth. There are three methods of cultural diffusion. 1) relocation diffusion 2) expansion diffusion 3) cultural diffusion
Those that are the most dominant have origins in one of a few areas called "culture hearths."
The seven original culture hearths are:
1) The Nile River Valley
2) The Indus River Valley
3) The Wei-Huang Valley
4) The Ganges River Valley
5) Mesopotamia
6) Mesoamerica
7) West Africa
Languages and Religions
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=universalizing+religions&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4ACGW_en___US463&biw=1265&bih=561&tbm=isch&prmd=imvnsfd&tbnid=TwYtFPc6zq5ahM:&imgrefurl=http://www.dce.k12.wi.us/srhigh/socialstudies/religion_rev.htm&docid=SYTSPwncpB43eM&imgurl=http://www.dce.k12.wi.us/srhigh/socialstudies/religi1.jpg&w=352&h=264&ei=-QjKT-y5C4_g8ASaismKBg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=502&vpy=98&dur=2199&hovh=194&hovw=259&tx=139&ty=101&sig=108892852465669511933&page=3&tbnh=164&tbnw=219&start=26&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:26,i:151
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=top+languages&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4ACGW_en___US463&biw=1265&bih=561&tbm=isch&prmd=imvnsfd&tbnid=_-zcktsGLCvVUM:&imgrefurl=http://www.globalization-group.com/edge/2010/04/top-languages-by-population/&docid=q3EuV1o6G9DFzM&imgurl=http://www.globalization-group.com/mkt/top_languages_population.jpg&w=445&h=357&ei=YgrKT4-mA4-a8gTZ07z1Dg&zoom=1
Popular and Folk Culture
Popular Culture is found in large heterogeneous societies that are bonded by a common culture despite the many differences among the people.
Folk Culture is traditionally practiced by small, homogeneous groups living in isolated rural areas.
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=popular+culture&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4ACGW_en___US463&biw=1251&bih=561&tbm=isch&prmd=imvnsb&tbnid=WnQKsdSeJGyhNM:&imgrefurl=http://catholiccartoonblog.blogspot.com/2011/02/should-church-throw-her-lot-in-with.html&docid=eghDwret0WleDM&imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-c3cPqjvKYEY/TWJ7TUSq-nI/AAAAAAAABFc/rI7ABAEiQiA/s1600/Popular%25252BCulture.jpg&w=1057&h=781&ei=UYrKT7KpAY2k8ASmkKSBDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=428&vpy=132&dur=988&hovh=193&hovw=261&tx=139&ty=124&sig=108892852465669511933&page=2&tbnh=148&tbnw=200&start=12&ndsp=17&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:12,i:145
Unit 4: Political Organization of space
In this unit we studied the political organization of the planet, changing collage of countries that once were kingdoms or parts of empires.
Types of Boundaries
Boundaries are divided between areas of differing land use and the legal boundary between units of real property.
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=boundaries&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4ACGW_en___US463&biw=1251&bih=561&tbm=isch&prmd=imvnsb&tbnid=RAv60scjK2xTlM:&imgrefurl=http://myconvictconditioning.blogspot.com/2012/03/2012-03-21-pushing-past-boundaries.html&docid=XEfcaIXnk6OXaM&imgurl=http://4.bp.blogspot.com/__5tV8LailWM/S95PB0RYKEI/AAAAAAAAA54/FystIBYQVX4/s1600/boundaries.jpg&w=672&h=448&ei=mo7KT-fsOoXM9QTDk9H_Dg&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=347&vpy=92&dur=1686&hovh=183&hovw=275&tx=172&ty=89&sig=108892852465669511933&page=1&tbnh=160&tbnw=213&start=0&ndsp=12&ved=1t:429,r:8,s:0,i:156
http://www.bestourism.com/bests/bestimages?tag=-political-boundaries-of-the-Arabian-desert
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=mountain+boundary&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4ACGW_en___US463&biw=1251&bih=561&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=f8g7QPKlSrr9lM:&imgrefurl=http://www.tripadvisor.ca/Attraction_Review-g1152622-d1859859-Reviews-Hongqilafu_Mountain_Boundary_Marker-Kashi_Xinjiang_Uygur.html&docid=UdCT9r0EmrvkmM&itg=1&imgurl=http://media-cdn.tripadvisor.com/media/photo-s/01/bc/dc/ee/hongqilafu-mountain-boundary.jpg&w=550&h=450&ei=hZDKT8jVBojs8wTp0amiDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=348&vpy=226&dur=8278&hovh=203&hovw=248&tx=176&ty=163&sig=108892852465669511933&page=1&tbnh=114&tbnw=138&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:2,s:0,i:77
Shapes of states
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=elongated+states+prorupted+states&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4ACGW_en___US463&biw=1251&bih=561&tbm=isch&prmd=imvnsfd&tbnid=tzXtoEgiwevSXM:&imgrefurl=http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/tiki-read_article.php%3FarticleId%3D56&docid=fWf-VLFBOq4J3M&imgurl=http://lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki2011/article_image.php%253Fimage_type%253Darticle%2526id%253D56&w=252&h=263&ei=PZLKT6OQN4n88gT47sCiDw&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=123&vpy=210&dur=1975&hovh=210&hovw=201&tx=133&ty=81&sig=108892852465669511933&page=2&tbnh=165&tbnw=158&start=25&ndsp=15&ved=1t:429,r:0,s:25,i:128
A) Prorupted
B) Fragmented
C) Elongated
D)Compact
E)Perforated
Disputes
Four types of disputes are:
1)Positional disputes-happens when arguments happen where the border is.
2)Territorial disputes- If people of one state want to take over a territory who territory are ethnically related conflicts.
3)Resource disputes- these occur during because of natural resources.
4)Functional disputes-when neighbor states cannot agree on policies that apply in border area.
Nation-State and Capital City
Nation state-is a state whose territorial extent coincides with that are occupied by a distinct nation or people.
Some types of nation-state are:
Multinational state- is one that has more than one nation.
Stateless nations- which are the people without a state.
Primate city- is the only that comes close to being like the capital state.
Forward capital- when the capital serves as a economic development and future hopes.
This unit talks about economic activities that they range from simple to complex. It also talks about the human life ancient to modern.
Unit 5: Agriculture and Rural Land Use
Sectors
Primary sector(agriculture)- economy that draws raw material from the natural environment. Consist of raising animals,fishing,forestry,and mining.
Secondary sector(industry)- economy that converts raw materials into manufactured goods. Consist of turning metals into tool and automobiles.
Tertiary sector(services)- economy that involves more services than goods. Consist of trade,real estate, government, ect.
Quaternary sector- is a subset for tertiary sector. Consist of management and administration and processing and disseminating information.
Farming
Subsistence farming depends on sub regions such as:
1)Intensive subsistence- is found in larger populations mostly concentrated in South Africa and East Africa there crops are wet rice.
2)Shifting Cultivation(slash and burn)- this is used in rain forest zones of Central and South America Asia , and much of Southern China and Southeast Asia.
In commercial farming there are two types:
1) Mixed crop and livestock farming- most common in the united states west of the Appalachian Mountains and in much of Europe from France to Russia.
2)Dairy farming-this type of farming only populations in cities across the United States.(Most common in Northeast)
3)Grain Farming- produced mostly in the United States
4)Livestock Ranching
5)Mediterranean agriculture
6)Commercial and Fruit farming
7)Plantation Farming
Von Thunen's Model
He developed this famous model in the 19th century. He created this model based on what he had saw in a city. The model has four rings which are:
Market and Gardening
Forest
Field Crops
Animal Grazing
In this unit we talked about the growth of cities. We talked about the changes that the industrialization has brought to the culture and social landscape.
Unit 6: Industrialization and Economic Development
Summary
Theories
Modernization theory-"The theory looks at the internal factors of a country while assuming that, with assistance, "traditional" countries can be brought to development in the same manner more developed countries have. Modernization theory attempts to identify the social variables which contribute to social progress and development of societies, and seeks to explain the process of social evolution. The 4 stages are:
1)traditional
2)Take-off stage
3)Drive to techological maturity
4)High mass consumption
Dependency theory-"is a body of social science theories predicated on the notion that resources flow from a "periphery" of poor and underdeveloped states to a "core" of wealthy states, enriching the latter at the expense of the former. It is a central contention of dependency theory that poor states are impoverished and rich ones enriched by the way poor states are integrated into the "world system." The three areas:
1)Core countries
2)Core of periphery
3)Countries of the semi-periphery
Major Industrial Regions
Western and Central Europe
Eastern North America
Russia and the Ukraine
Eastern Asia
Trading and Challenges
The three most important trading blocs is:
1)North America- deals most barriers between the United States and Canada.
2)The European Union- majority of barriers have been terminated from members of the EU.
3)East Asia- no formal organization of states exists in East Asia.
The main challenges for less developed countries are:
Distance from markets
Inadequate infrastructure
Competition with existing manufactures in other countries
In this unit we learned about how cities function, their internal system and structures , and the external influences on them.
Unit 7:Cities and Urban Land Use
Cities
The three world cities are:
London
New York
Tokyo
In world cities they have:
Business services
Consumer services
Public services
The three top mega-cities are:
Tokyo, Japan
Mexico City, Mexico
Seoul, South Korea
Theories
Central Place Theory
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki/article_image.php%3Fid%3D16&imgrefurl=http://www.lewishistoricalsociety.com/wiki/tiki-read_article.php?articleId%3D16&h=548&w=602&sz=179&tbnid=Wa4PJeA4x49wPM:&tbnh=90&tbnw=99&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dconcentric%2Bzone%2Bmodel%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=concentric+zone+model&usg=__LG7LDWw0CPVvIUAK7I0csUaV6pU=&docid=CByRtJQFnAWQqM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=cU7NT9ybA9G1hAfF4oXaDw&sqi=2&ved=0CHEQ9QEwBg&dur=458
Concentric Zone Model
http://www.google.com/imgres?q=concentric+zone+model&hl=en&sa=X&qscrl=1&nord=1&rlz=1T4ACGW_en___US463&biw=1251&bih=561&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=9r8vandSg5gsHM:&imgrefurl=http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/adams/old305/morphology/305lect26a.htm&docid=Fw7CQcuK7w7wyM&imgurl=http://www.utexas.edu/depts/grg/adams/old305/morphology/zones.jpg&w=350&h=194&ei=Pk_NT76WMYXD6AGnwfly&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=540&vpy=150&dur=101&hovh=155&hovw=280&tx=104&ty=85&sig=108892852465669511933&page=1&tbnh=120&tbnw=216&start=0&ndsp=10&ved=1t:429,r:7,s:0,i:154
Sector Model
http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_Jn7W8gidLPk/SNBY2VRCy4I/AAAAAAAAACQ/RDA-tj80SFs/s400/hoyt.gif&imgrefurl=http://yakkersy12geo.blogspot.com/2008/09/hoyts-sector-model.html&h=233&w=400&sz=68&tbnid=jD4CbFQvnxdEaM:&tbnh=70&tbnw=120&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dsector%2Bmodel%26tbm%3Disch%26tbo%3Du&zoom=1&q=sector+model&usg=__Ga-W8y29cruFtl4u4U_aYzupA7Q=&docid=z9gqHwDZNl7SQM&hl=en&sa=X&ei=a1DNT43lAZG6hAf6kPzLBQ&sqi=2&ved=0CG0Q9QEwAw&dur=164
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