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Apartheid

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by

Lucas Warmuth

on 17 July 2014

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Transcript of Apartheid

1. What was Apartheid?
Long way to freedom
South Africa -
Current Situation
Problems & Struggles
high unemployment
social gap
Life under apartheid - Main constituent parts of the sytstem
Turn to violence
National Resistance
From segregation to Apartheid
International Sanctions
SA after Apartheid
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission
List of Sources
Books

- NEVILLE, Alexander: Südafrika. Der Weg von der Apartheid zur Demokratie. München: Beck, 2001
- CARLIN, John: Der Sieg des Nelson Mandela. Wie aus Feinden Freunde wurden. Freiburg, Br. ; Basel ; Wien : Herder, 2008


Websites

http://www.southafrica.info/about/history/521106.htm#.U8Qitfl_t8E
http://www.southafrica.info/about/history/521107.htm#.U8Qisfl_t8E
http://www.southafrica.info/about/history/521108.htm#.U8Qisvl_t8E
http://www.southafrica.info/about/history/521109.htm#.U8Qisvl_t8E
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14094760
http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-14094918
http://www.nelsonmandela.org/content/page/biography
http://www.nelsonmandela.org/content/page/timeline
http://www.gov.za/aboutsa/history.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apartheid
http://www.apartheidmuseum.org/ (Permanent Exhibition)
http://www-cs-students.stanford.edu/~cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html
http://www.planet-schule.de/wissenspool/teens-in-south-africa/inhalt/hintergrund/apartheid.html
http://www.planet-wissen.de/laender_leute/suedafrika/geschichte_suedafrikas/index.jsp
http://www.planet-schule.de/wissenspool/teens-in-south-africa/inhalt/hintergrund/after-apartheid.html
http://www.planet-schule.de/wissenspool/teens-in-south-africa/inhalt/hintergrund/robben-island.html
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/Apartheid/aparthei.htm
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/apartheid/Entwicklung/entwicklung.htm
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/Apartheid/Entwicklung/suedafrika_heute.htm
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/apartheid/Bestandteile/bestandteile.htm
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/apartheid/bestandteile/homelands.htm
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/apartheid/bestandteile/klassifizierung.htm
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/apartheid/bestandteile/gesellschaft.htm
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/apartheid/bestandteile/wirtschaft.htm
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/apartheid/bestandteile/politik.htm
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/apartheid/Widerstand/widerstand.htm
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/Apartheid/Widerstand/ueberwindung.htm
http://www.dadalos.org/int/Menschenrechte/Grundkurs_MR5/Apartheid/apartheid/Chronologie/chronologie.htm
http://neuneinhalb.wdr.de/lexikon/A/apartheid.php5
http://www.bpb.de/nachschlagen/lexika/politiklexikon/17083/apartheid
http://www.sahistory.org.za/liberation-struggle-south-africa/apartheid-and-limits-non-violent-resistance-1948-1960
http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/popular-struggles-early-years-apartheid-1948-1960
http://www.sahistory.org.za/liberation-struggle-south-africa/genesis-armed-struggle-1960-1966
http://www.sahistory.org.za/liberation-struggle-south-africa/armed-struggle-advancement-student-and-labour-movements-1967-1976
http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/mass-democratic-movements-1976-1983
http://www.sahistory.org.za/liberation-struggle-south-africa/people-armed-1984-1990
http://www.sahistory.org.za/topic/state-emergency-south-africa-1960-and-1980s
http://www.sahistory.org.za/transition-and-negotiation-1990-1994
systematic oppression &
discrimination
+
Government
Legislation
enlarge power &
guarantee privileges
consequent political, social, economic and spatial separation of races
adopted by National Party in 1948








especially noticeable in daily public life
tightened already existing, long ongoing injustices
enactment of new Apartheid laws
Spatial Segregation

Group Areas Act








-> lost citizenship in SA
Homelands
-> no right to vote
Classification / Passes

Population Registration Act
-> non-whites had to carry

identification books
at all
times
-> registration according to race
Social


-> prohibition of mixed marriages

-> separate public facilities
Economy

-> unequal pay

Politics

-> violent suppression of any
opposition or resistance

national resistance by Black African political organizations













demonstrations and strikes -> beaten down by SA government

African National Congress
Nelson Mandela
Black Consciousness Movement
Steven Biko
Sharpeville Massacre: March 21st, 1960
69 innocents killed
banning of the main African opposition organisations
imprisonment of activists
How and through whom was Apartheid defeated?
Soweto uprising: June 16th, 1976
UN sanctions
political isolation
weakened economy
supported reconciliation & change towards multi-racial democracy
Desmond Tutu
consequences of Apartheid? - still noticeable!
Demonstration in GB
Demonstration in Japan
Poster appealing to
boycott SA Goods
Crossword
events of Soweto + segregation laws caused worldwide outrage and opposition to the apartheid regime
extending brutal approach (boycotts, sabotage)
Apartheid
End of Apartheid
far-reaching reforms by president F. W. de Klerk (from 1989)
victory of the ANC
Nelson Mandela:
first black &
democratically elected president
May 10th, 1994: first free election for all South Africans
Current Situation
multicultural
Petty Apartheid
-> peaceful protest of black students against Afrikaans as teaching language
-> non-violent protest against pass laws
abolished Apartheid and its constituent parts
released Mandela from imprisonment
cancelled ban of all 61 political organizations
"Forgiving without forgetting"
Principle:
perpetrators were not brought to trial
growing opposition inside the country
+
forced concessions
->
no change in essential Apartheid laws
disappointment
new violent protests
1980s:
Full transcript