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The Nervous System

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by

Ashleigh Brugger

on 21 April 2014

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Transcript of The Nervous System


4 key functions
1.) The nervous system receives information about the inside and outside environment.
2.) The nervous system processes information.
3.) If needed the nerves will save this information if needed later on.
4.) Then the nervous system will act and respond to this information.
What do the cells look like and how does that help with the function?
How well does the nervous system heal or regenerate.
When the CNS is critically injured it can not regenerate neurons or new axons.
3 things that hold promise to regeneration of nerve cells are
stem cells
growth factors
gene therapy
Steroids can be used to reduce the swelling and further damage of the nervous system in some cases.
How the N.S. interacts with other systems
Skeletal system
Bone provides calcium
Vertebrae protects spinal cord
key inputs and outputs
How the nervous system works
The nervous system works by electrical and chemical reactions through out the body.
They do this by the neurons.
Part of the neuron called the dendrites receives the signals sent. When receiving or sending information it runs down the axon.
For Example:
If you were to get a cut, then there would be electrical signals sent through the nerves and neurons to the brain to then send an effector. This would then tell the blood to go to that specific area and start to clot the opening in the skin.
The Nervous System
The HOOK
Cardiovascular System
Endothelial cells maintain blood-brain barrier
Baroreceptors sends information to the brain form blood pressure.
Cerebro spinal fluid drains into the blood venous supply
Muscular System
Sensory receptors in the joints between bones send signals about body positions to the brain.
The muscles around the intestines have nerves which controls the rate of food moving through the intestines.
Endocrine/Reproductive System
The reproductive hormones affect the development of the nervous system
The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland
The hormones affect the brain development

Lymphatic System
Stimulates defense against infections
This happens because the nervous system sends signals for the white blood cells to go to the site of infections
Respiratory System
The brain and nerves monitors volume and blood gas levels like Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide
Digestive System
Building blocks for some neurotransmitters
Autonomic nervous system controls the tone of the intestines(smooth muscles).
The Digestive tract sends sensory information to the brain
Urinary System
Bladder sends sensory information to the brain
Integumentary System
Receptors in the skin send sensor information to the brain
The autonomic nervous stem regulates peripheral blood flow and sweat glands
Nerves control muscles connected to the hair follicles
Glail cells which play an important part in supporting neurons physically, and metabolically.
Different types of the Glail cells but all play the same type of role.
Glial cells in the PNS are called oligodendroytes and astocrtyes.
How does the nervous system help keep the body in homeostasis?
Sending chemical messengers to the brain
Which then tell a status of pain, hungry and temperature etc.
Negative feedback is used to try and keep the status on a certain goal.
An example would be........
Something in the body rises or falls(temp,O2 levels, or glucose levels etc)
Then the controlled condition that monitors like receptors pick up the change.
Then the receptors notify the control center to go fix the problem.
Next the effectors go out to fix the issue.
Which then gives a response to get back to a set point.

Disorders
Main disorders are: Trauma, Infections, Degeneration, Structural defects, Tumors, Blood flow disruption, and auto-immune disorders.
Vascular disorders
Stroke, Transient ischemic attack(TIA)(mini stroke), hemorrhage (bleeding internally), Hematoma (blood collects on the outside of the blood vessels)
Infections
Meningitis, Polio, and epidural abscess
Structural
Brain+spinal cord tumors, Bell's palsy (paralysis of the facial muscles), Gullain-barre syndrome (immune system attacks part of the nervous system)
Functional
Headache, epilepsy, dizziness and neuralgia (sharp pains in damaged nerves)
Degeneration
Parkinson's, MS, ALS (Lou Gehrig's), and Alzheimer
Symptoms
Headaches
Loss of feeling/ Tingling
Weakness
Loss of vision or 2x vision
Memory loss
Lack of coordination
Tremors/ Seziurs
Muscle wasting
Slurred speech
Treatment
Neurology surgery
Medication
Rehab for neurological conditions
Healthy nervous system
Sleep
Taking care of other health conditions (diabetes, high blood pressure, etc) with medications or natural ways such as diet and exercise.
Eat regularly with vitamin enriched foods can help the development of cells all over the body.
How the nervous system is split up.
There are 2 systems of the nervous system
Central Nervous system (CNS)
This includes the brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)
This includes the both autonomic (involuntary nerves)
somatic (voluntary nerves)
The inputs and outputs are from other neurons sending and receiving messages from all over the body
Also sensory organs like the eyes, ears and nose are the inputs to the brain and the motor response is the output.
Example
Examples of how they support...
surround the neurons for support
supply nutrients and oxygen
to insulate the electrical impulses
rid the body of dead neurons
Some different types of neurotransmitters
Monoamines
dopamine-
movement, attention, learning, and reward system
norepinephine-
increases blood glucose levels by way of stmulationg pancreas and liver to break down glycogen
epinephrine-
adrenaline
histamine-
an inflammatory response
serotonin-
appetite, sleep, temperature, behavior, learning etc
Amino Acid
glutamate-
crucial for normal brain function
d-serine and aspartate-
both are vital so that the communication between neurons can occur
y-aminobutyric acid-
the main inhibitor of neurotransmitters and it regulates muscle tone
glycine-
promotes deep sleep and it converts toxins to harmless waste
Ganglia
A collection of neurons surrounded by a collection of connective tissue.
Function: To conduct the PNS impulses to the CNS to output a response.
Parts include
caudate nucleus-
connected to learning, memory and sensory
thalamus-
sensory signals pass through
globus pallidus-
regulates voluntary movements
putamen-
helps with movement of limbs, sensory signals and learning
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