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From Writings on the Wall to Signals travelin in the airwaves: A Historical View of Communications
Transcript of From Writings on the Wall to Signals travelin in the airwaves: A Historical View of Communications
A historical overview of communications
Communication began as drawing on walls of caves,
carvings on barks of trees.
From Papyrus to Paper
AD100 - Christians invented the codex, a document which can be rightfully referred to as the prototype of a book.
Nation-States and the Rise of Newspapers
Gutenberg printing press made it possible for newspapers to be produced.
England-where the first newspaper was reportedly produced.
From Static to Moving Images
Evolution of Media:
Cave paintings are images or murals drawn or painted on the rock surfaces of a cave. They have been found in places like France, Spain, North Africa, India, Central Asia, and China. Experts say that cave paintings explain what happens in nature as well as teach others on how to do certain activities such as hunting animals.
The first petroglyphs are created on hunter-gathering strategies. This is regarded as the first form of mass media.
They are carved visual images of what people, during that time, actually saw.
Egyptian hieroglyphs are invented, which represent real or imaginary elements. These symbols showcase ideas, sound, and syllables. Priests use hieroglyphs to write down prayers as well as magical texts that relate to the afterlife and the worship of gods. Their usage is not limited to religious purposes, however, as civil officials used them to write royal documents, record historical events, and to document calculations.
The cuneiform is developed by the ancient civilization of Sumer, which is regarded as the first means of writing. The Sumerians needed a way to manage labour and resources in an agriculture-based civilization, which the cuneiform achieved.
The Ancient Books
Papyrus pages facing one another were bound together instead of rolled up for easy reading.
15th century- a revolution in printing took place.
(1394-1460) invented the
movable type machine.
This machine made it possible to produce multiple copies of pages at a time. The Bible was one of Gutenberg's earliest and nost famous creations.
first book printed in the Philippines. Written by Fray Juan Plasencia, an Augustinian priest. The book is about the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
1700- the idea of a
Newspaper (McQuail 1983) is a more significant innovation than the book. Due to its defining features; regular appearance, commercial circulation, serving multiple purpose--information, education, entertainment, advertising, diversion, and even gossip.
(Turow 2009) -a press that had the ability to conduct dialogue and even argue with the government.
-rose from the ranks of the intellectuals in the British and American Colonies.
-triggered by the imposition of taxes on paper by the British Empire, so it could generate the much needed revenues to finance its wars during the 1760s and the 1770s.
-During this time, the incomes of printers were severely affected by this development so they openly denounced this colonial policy of taxation.
the development of the steam engine gave rise to the steam-powered cylinder press, which dramatically lowered the cost of newspapers. Such advances in the technologies of scale the the rise of the working class transformed the newspaper into a truly mass medium.
In the Philippines, the rise of the newspaper came about in the first decades of the
December 1, 1846- La Esperanza,
the first daily newspaper, was published. Other early newspapers:
•Diario de Manila (1848)
• Boletin Oficial de Filipinas (1852)
•La Solidridad (published in Spain-1889)
•Ang Kalayaan (published by the Katipuneros-Jan 18, 1896) the official revolutionary newspaper of the KKK
Several inventions intersected and gave rise to film as a mass medium.
George Eastman-invented the film and built a company that later became known as Kodak.
Thomas Edison & William Dickson - turned the use of photographic film into a material that can be moved in front of a lens at a constant speed to result into several photographs which when later developed and viewed by the naked eye, it gave the illusion of a moving object.
Louis and Augusto Lumière
Frechmen, further developed the technology of film projectors. They worked toward inventing a technology that could continuously feed film through a movie camera and project it to more than one viewer at a time. This gave birth to motion picture.
By 1896, the Edison Vitascope was on public debut in New York, where it showed a film entitled
Rough Sea at Dover
by Robert Paul.
While newspaper catered to people's desire for information, the rise of film addressed ad emerging worldview that would define people's desire between work and leisure.
Radio and Television followed very closely.
was used in a scientific magazine called the
1928-First telecast of television. It transmitted from the experimental studio of General Electric in New York City.
In Europe, Nazi authorities in Germany operated the world's first regular television service, using it as platform for propaganda.
1946-TV came into being in the US
1946-James Lindenberg, an American engineer, began assembling transmitters in Bolinao, Pangasinan. He was not fully successful with his attempt to set up a TV station. But soon, he teamed up with Antonio Quirino, and together, they established what would later be known as the Alto Broadcasting System.
1930- Radio Corporation of America introduced
1939-US Pres Franklin D Roosevelt became the first president to appear on tv.
1953-commercial TV was launched in the Philippines. First official telecast was in October 23, 1953.
The Rise of New Media
The term traditional media has become synonymous with the seven most common forms of media (books, newspapers, magazine, sound recording, radio, television, and film.
1950s- landscape of media and information technology began to change.
1948-transistor radio was invented, this signaled the development of semi-conductor devices as foundation of modern electronics and circuitry which will pave the way for the development of computers.
1953-IBM has already shipped its first electronic computers called 701.
"Advanced Research Projects Agency Network"
was created (considered as the predecessor/basis of the internet).
a large area-wide network created by the US military specifically the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA)
ARPA serves as the ground for networking technologies that will link the military to various federal agencies and universities.
1971-transition from ARPANET to internet commenced.
1983-internet was universally adopted. Electronic mail or Email was standardized.
The internet enabled the development and the unstoppable growth of new media because it democratized the platform for creating, producing, and disseminating information.
in the Philippines
The first local Bulletin Board System (BBS) a computer system running a software that allows users to connect and exchange messages and information using a program. Started in 1986, used a software that ran on IBM XT Clone PC, modem that ran on 1200bpm. Subscription fees up to P1000/month.
1987-inter-BBS connectivity was enabled through the Philippine FidoNet
exchange. Metro Manila able to connect to other bulletin board of
the same area.
early 90s- email gateways and services broadened. With support formIndustrial Research Foundation (IRF), the PhilNet project was launched consisting of reps fro various universities like UP-Diliman, UP-Los Baños, De Lasalle Univ, and ADMU. They teamed up with Dr Rudy Villarica who would represent the IRF.
July 1993- with full funding from DOST, the PhilNet project scaled up.
Students from participating universities were able to connect another gateway at the Victoria University of Australia. November 1993, an additional grant of 12.5 M to purchase equipment and lease communication lines.
March 29, 1994- Philippines was formally connected to the Internet using
the PLDT network on Makati City. On the same day, the First Int'l E-mail Conference was being held at the Univ of San Carlos in Cebu. Dr John Brule, a professor emeritus from Syracuse Univ announced "WE'RE IN!" as the PhilNet connection successfully linked up with the global internet. Cheers and enthusiastic applause greeted this historic moment.