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Metaphon Therapy Approach
Transcript of Metaphon Therapy Approach
Proposed that a child with phonological disorders has failed to acquire the rules of the phonological system, and the focus is on the sound properties that need to be contrasted.
Targets typically include processes that impact intelligibility, can be imitated, or are not seen in typically developing children of the same age. (Howell & Dean, 1994)
Metaphon Therapy Approach
Based on the principle that homophony motivates phonemic change.
Dissatisfaction with minimal pairs due to the lack of change in the child’s phonological system
Has some similarities to cycles training
Incorporates various approaches
What is it children with phonological disorders know about sounds?
Main Premise Behind the Technique
Focuses on feature differences between sounds in order to develop an awareness that sounds can be classified by characteristics such as duration, manner and place.
Research indicates that difficulties do not pertain to producing speech sounds, but failure to acquire rules of the phonological system.
The best way to change the phonological system is by giving the child the ability to pay attention to and reflect on the phonological structure of language. (Metalinguistic Awareness)
Allows child to organize and reorganize internal representations of sounds to reflect correct productions.
So What Is Metaphon Therapy?
Relatively new approach with limited research.
The research shows :
Effective for phonological disorders.
Reduces target phonological processes.
Equally as effective as other approaches and brings about phonological change.
Evidence Based Research
Candidates & When to Use Metaphon Therapy
1. Acknowledge there must be changes made
2. Realize that changes can be made
3. Must receive information that can be
used to create change
1. The child is predominantly a listener during this phase
2. The goal is to raise phonological awareness (four levels)
Activities/games that involve descriptive words for features of the target sound
Fricatives = "long", Stops = "short"
Focus on those terms in non-speech sounds
Use instruments, noise-makers, animal sounds, etc.
Child and therapist take turns producing & responding to different speech sounds regarding the feature of the target sound
Listener identifies the type of sound heard
Therapist uses minimal pairs to show that different sounds with those features create different meanings
Transfer knowledge from Phase 1 to communicative environment
Aware when the target and production are not the same
Have the ability to correct productions
Phase 2 includes the Metaphon Core Activity:
Child and Clinician take turns being speaker and listener
First at word level
Then at sentence level
Typically young children (pre-school age)
Metaphonological knowledge is developing
Restricted phonetic inventories
A wide variety of phonological processes
Minimum 2-3 phonological processes prevalent in their speech
When to use technique
Used to raise awareness of phonological
structures of a language
When there is a need to address intelligibility
Use interventions and stimuli to treat levels of identified disruption
How to Select Target Sounds
Use the Metaphon Resource Pack (Dean, Howell,
Hill, & Waters, 1990), which includes screening procedures, process-specific probes, and monitoring procedures.
70 words (monosyllabic and 26 multisyllabic) are elicited. 13 different phonological processes are identified.
Metaphon Resource Pack
General Considerations that influence the choice among the processes to be treated:
1. Processes selected for treatment should not be those that are seen in normally developing children of the same age.
2. Variable use of a simplifying process, which may be evidence of spontaneous change in the child's phonological system, should be given priority in the selection process.
3.The effect the operation fo the phonological process has on the intelligibility of the child is important. Processes that cause mre disruption, such as stopping of fricatives or atypical process, should be given priority.
4.The sounds available to the child, both spontaneously and on an imitative basis, play a role in the selection process; sounds that are not in the inventory but can be limitated are usually given priority.
Strengths & Weaknesses
1. More controlled studies are needed.
1. It reduces the use of specific phonological processes pre- and post-treatment.
2. Changes in the phonological system were accelerated beyond the expected level according to chronological development.
3. Some demonstrated a reduction in the targeted phonological processes that were unrelated to those specifically targeted in treatment.
Goal of Metaphon Approach:
Talk to children about the properties of sounds in a way they can understand
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, (n.d.).
disorders - articulation and phonology
. Retrieved. from http://www.asha.org/PRPSpecificTopic.aspx?folderid=8589935321§ion=Treatment
Bauman-Waengler, J. (2012). Articulatory and phonological impairments: A
clinical focus (4th Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Dean, E. C., Howell, J., Reid, J., Grieve, R., & Donaldson, M. (1996).
Evaluatingtherapy for child phonological disorder: A group study of Metaphon Therapy. In T. W. Powell (Ed.),
Pathologies of speech and language: contributions of clinical phonetics linguistics
. International Clinical Phonetics and Linguistics Association.
Reid, J., Donaldson, M., Howell, J., Dean, E., Grieve, R., (1996). The
effectiveness of therapy for child phonological disorder: The metaphon approach. In M. Aldridge (Ed.), Child Language (165-175).