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Hunter Gatherers

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by

Connor Ebel

on 26 November 2013

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Transcript of Hunter Gatherers

Hunter-Gatherer -> Farmer -> Complex Civilizations
Hunter Gatherers
Early humans were hunter-gatherers
who hunted animals and gathered plants for food. With groups of about 30 people, hunter gatherers were constantly on the move migrating from one place to another following their food.





The Transition to Farming
With the rising temperatures going on around the world, growing seasons grew longer and the land became drier for cultivating wild grasses.




Farming
Since people could now stay in one place and have a reliable food source at the same time, they started to focus on other things rather than just surviving.






Farming to Complex Civilizations
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They had minor tools and technology such as bows, spears, and arrows made out of sticks and stones that they would use for hunting.








Work labor was divided by sex: men did the hunting while women did the gathering of nuts, berries, and other edible plants along with their children.






The wandering nomads depended on the natural environment for shelter, as home would consist of caves and other shelters made of rocks, branches, and animal skins.







Some of the hunter gatherer women scattered seeds near a regular campsite and came back the next season to find healthy crops growing in their place, therefore leading to the discovery of agricultural farming.






With a rich supply of grain, populations began to grow which caused stress among the hunter gatherers to find a new food source.... farming was a decent alternative as they could now stay in one place while producing enough food for the enlarged population.
This was the start of the agricultural revolution.







Also, basic tools were now being made like hoes, sickles, and plow sticks to improve the civilizations productivity of farming.
With a lot of dead time, humans tried to interact with the animals around them and figure out the process of domestication. These domesticated animals were able to play a big role in the society by giving farmers meat, milk, fertilizer (poop), and fur for clothing. With the newly acquired fertilizer, crops grew much faster and were larger in size.





Farming was built on the domestication of plants and the land around early humans. By planting a seed, humans relied on the environment to provide the seed enough nutrients to grow into a thriving crop.







One early farming method was called
slash-and-burn
in which farmers would cut down trees or grasses and would burn them to clear a field. The remaining ashes fertilized the soil and allowed farmers to plant their crops for a good year or two. After several years, the trees and grass grew back and the process was repeated again.






http://www.history.com/shows/mankind-the-story-of-all-of-us/videos/mankind-the-story-of-all-of-us-farming
This led to job specialization among the people in the society and with their newly learned skills the plow was soon invented. Given the plow was being pulled by animals, it allowed for larger areas of land to be cultivated. As the soil was aerated during plowing, it yielded more crops for longer periods of time increasing the production of food once again.






Next, in the developing society, came the invention of the wheel and sail, along with irrigation systems. These advancements were a huge turning point in human history as humans now had a faster way of transportation for trade and a way to water crops with little to no physical work.







Complex Civilization
As the society continues to get more and more advanced, forms of language and writing systems are created enhancing the peoples way of communication.





And lastly, a type of government/ social hierarchy is made. The people are split up into three classes: Upper, middle, and lower.




Types of religion are also put into play.





By: Connor Ebel
P. 2

At this point, the society is running like a well oiled machine.




Video Link
Thanks for watching!
Sources
http://www.history.com
http://www.eduplace.com
The packet handed out in class
Full transcript