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Rise of Professionalism
Transcript of Rise of Professionalism
Development of the Proscenium Stage
Separates dancers from the audience
Solidifies dance is to be seen by others
Individual dancers (rather than intricate floor patterns) become the focus of attention
More Difficult Dance Vocabulary
Development of the Ballet Barre
First used chairs then strung a rope between chairs
Eventually developed the wood barre attached to the wall
Dancer & Choreographer
Styles of Dance
The Loves of Mars and Venus 1717
by John Weaver
One of the earliest examples of ballet d' action.
Dancers were called upon to convey emotion and dramatic action through gesture and dance, without the use of spoken words.
The Age of Reform & Ballet d'Action
Dance Becomes Specialized
Separates Social Dance from Professional Stage Dance
Known as "the god of dance"
Dancer and Dance Master
Taught Gaetan Vestris & Jean Gorges Noverre
Successor to Dupre as "the god of dance"
Known for "Danse Noble", a measured, stately, elegant dancing
Developed Male Vocabulary
French ballerina who helped establish dramatic dance
She was expressive, light and dramatic in style
Taught Marie Salle and Marie Carmago
One of the first female choreographers
First to discard traditional, restrictive costume for a muslin dress
Dramatic dancer, famous for character-based costumes
First female to execute "entrechat quatre"
Virtuosic dancer, famous for leaps & jumps
First to shorten skirt to calf-length
First to wear slippers instead of heeled shoes
First to wear ballet tights
Son of Gaetan Vestris
Successor as "the god of dance"
Trained August Bournonville, Marius Petipa, Lucien Petipa, Fanny Elssler, Jules Perrot, Marie Taglioni
THE SEVEN POINTS OF REFORM
ACCORDING TO JEAN GORGES NOVERRE
1. Dancers must be trained with sensitivity to the individual's anatomy.
2. Pedagogical consideration of the dancer's personality and style is prerequisite to artistic development.
3. Valid and sincere gesture and expression are of the utmost importance in creating ballet.
4. Plots must be developed logically; they should be thematically integrated with movement. Superfluous solos and irrelevant technique should be omitted.
5. Music must be appropriately suited to the dramatic development of the plot.
6. Costumes, sets, and lighting must be compatible with the introduction, plot, and climax of each act within the ballet.
7. Masks must be removed and make up applied to heighten dancer's expressions.
Generally considered the creator of Ballet d'Action
Author of "Lettres sur la danse et les ballets"
(Letters on Dancing
Studied with Dupré
Ballet Master at Paris Opéra in 1776-1781
Jean Georges Noverre
Letters on Dancing (Lettres sur la danse et les ballets)
by Jean Georges Noverre
Focused on developing the ballet d'action
Printed in almost every European Language
One the most frequently quoted books in the literature of dance
Dances in which the movements of the dancers are designed to express character and assist in the narrative
Expresses character and emotion through dancers' bodies and faces, rather than through elaborate costumes and props
Dances that tell a story entirely through movement
Dance Master and Choreographer
Invented a "flying machine" to assist ballerinas to rise on to their toes
Conventional Gestures - Striking one hand on the other to signify anger
Naturalistic Gestures - Turning head away form someone to express disgust
Raked stage is slanted up away from audience
This is where upstage & downstage come from in stage directions
Candles in a chandelier with mirrors used to illuminate the stage
Wax would drip on stage and performers
Translation of Fuelliet's Notation
La Fille Mal Gardee
(The Wayward Daughter)
Created by Jean Dauberval
Trained by Noverre
Taught Charles Didelot
Two-act comic ballet
Has been remade by many artists throughout the years