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History of Hip-Hop

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Meaghan O'Connor

on 30 April 2016

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Transcript of History of Hip-Hop

History of Hip-Hop
The Outcome
The Perfect Recipe
Wide variety of cultures in a small, condensed area.
Mixed neighborhoods with consolidated low income housing, otherwise known as "the projects" (apartment buildings offering very little space for low rent prices).
High rate of youth unemployment.

The Development
In order to build a passageway/highway through the Bronx, workers had to abolish various establishments and functioning transportation systems that were already in place, including:
subway lines,
major railroad lines,
a handful of transit lines,
sewer lines and
over 60,000 Bronx residential homes.
The Place
Conclusion
The origin of hip-hop links to the Bronx, NYC during the 1970s.
Hip-Hop Elements: MC’s (Rap), Graffiti, DJ’s & Break dancing.
Hip-Hop introduced the idea of “sampling”: taking beats/audio from older songs and incorporating them into new work.
Instrumentation: synthesizers, turntables, "rock band set up": (bass, drums, guitar, vocals), rappers (MC's).
Hip-hop is an evolving genre that continues to push limits and provides artists a platform to confront social issues and constantly addresses current events.
In 1953, New York City construction began in the Bronx. The goal was to build an expressway connecting Long Island and Queens to New Jersey via the Bronx.
Over 500,000 jobs are lost in the construction process.
Youth unemployment reaches a whopping 60%.
A variety of ethnic groups are forced to live in the same neighborhoods, including: African-American, Afro-Caribbean, Latino, Jewish, Irish and Italian.
This high tension of different cultures in a small area, forces young people to create gangs for self-defense.
Founding Father
"
DJ Kool Herc
", originally known as
Clive Campbell
, invented various DJing techniques and revolutionized the genre of Hip-Hop.
DJ Kool Herc is best known for his technique "The Merry-Go-Round". An early "sampling" technique where the DJ switches from record to record, replaying the chorus or height of the song, in order to prolong the song and/or chorus.
This technique was first demonstrated April 11, 1973 by DJ Kool Herc at a birthday party in the Bronx, New York City.
The Elements of Hip-Hop
The beginning and development of hip-hop spanned across the 1970's. The history and culture of hip-hop can be distributed in four main categories...
The DJ or DJing (Aural)
"DJ" otherwise known as, "disc jockey" is discussed as being the first element of developed hip-hop culture.
DJs create music by using vinyl records on dueling turntables and creating their own music with various techniques and sampling methods.
Samples were simple, dancing melodies inspired from Funk and Disco.

The Elements of Hip-Hop
The MC or MCing/Rapping (Oral)
The "MC" otherwise known as, the "master of ceremonies" developed as a supporting role to the DJ.
MCs would "rap" or use "spoken word" over the DJs beat to create a song.
Early forms of rap can be connected to "spoken-word poetry" performed to a steady beat pattern.
The ingredients of rap include "content", "flow" (rhythm and rhyme), and "delivery".
The Elements of Hip-Hop
B-Boying/Break Dancing (Physical)
"B-boying" or "break dancing" is traditionally performed with hip-hop, funk, and break beats.
Several gangs developed a style of street dance during the 70's.
Break dancing became popular with growing media coverage of hip-hop.

The Elements of Hip-Hop
Graffiti Art (Visual)
Graffiti can be defined as writing and/or drawings that appear on public surfaces such as walls, streets or public transportation.
Graffiti was used during the birth of hip-hop to express various aspects of the culture including social and political messages.
Graffiti as a whole, can also be a way of artistic expression and can vary in different paint styles.

Pioneers of Hip-Hop
Afrika Bambaataa
, was a dominant member of the Black Spades gang. But was known for being able to float across gang lines and make friends due to his active role in being a DJ.
He picked up DJing techniques from Ex-gang members.
After traveling to Africa he transformed his gang ties into a peace organization called the "Zulu Nation."
Pioneers of Hip-Hop
Grandmaster Flash
, originally named
Joseph Saddler
was a pioneer in his DJ techniques.
He was the first DJ to use his hands to manipulate the placement of the "break" or the "loop" of the record while DJing. He later identified this technique as the "Quick Mix Theory".
He was also the first DJ to wire a set of headphones into a DJ mixer. This gave him the ability to preview his placement on the record before playing it for his audience.
Hip-Hop Exposure
In the 1970's, hip-hop steadily started to compete with "mainstream" music and started gaining radio attention throughout the United States.
During the 1980's, hip-hop became an internationally recognized music genre and became popular around the world.
The Sugarhill Gang's
1979 song "
Rapper's Delight
" is referred to be the first popular hip-hop song.
"New School" Hip-Hop
In 1983, a new hip-hop sound emerged. These artists were frequently referred to as “New School" hip-hop artists. Some of these artists included: Run-D.M.C., LL Cool J and The Beastie Boys.
The "New School" sound required shorter tracks in order to meet the demand of strict radio time requirements.
Instrumentals (music) became less complex, due to the focus of lyrics and rapping.
The sound of drum machines become more popular.
Rock becomes influential, with collaborations such as Aerosmith and Run-DMC.
Citations
Hip hop. (2014, March). Retrieved April 28, 2016, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hip_hop
Parker, E., & O. (Directors). (2014).
Nas: Time Is Illmatic
[Motion picture]. United States: Tribeca Film Festival.
I., & Baybutt, A. (Directors). (2012).
Something From Nothing: The Art of Rap
[Motion picture]. United States: Kaleidoscope Film, Indomina,.
Pray, D. (Director). (2002).
Scratch
[Motion picture on DVD]. United States: Palm Pictures.
Hip-Hop Exposure
Famous classical and jazz pianist Herbie Hancock performs his first hip-hop hit "
Rockit
" during the 1984 Grammy Music Awards Show.
A new generation of DJ's are heavily influenced by this performance including DJ Qbert and Mix Master Mike. The validation of the genre provided hope in the hip-hop industry.
Full transcript