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TOK Presentation: Human Sciences

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Pia Malinen

on 13 September 2014

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Transcript of TOK Presentation: Human Sciences

Human Sciences:

TOK Presentation: Human Sciences
Real Life Example: Eating Disorders
- Bipolarity, alcoholism, drug addiction

Applying our KQ with other psychological disorders
Drug abuse, Alcoholism and Bipolarity
Causality and Correlation


-Us (Pia and Colomba)

Applying Ways Of Knowing

Different perspectives
on psychological disorders
By Colomba Lyall and Pia Malinen
Affecting Factors
- Biological

- Psychological

Main Knowledge Question
How and to what extent can a human scientist determine causality?
Biological Factors
Psychological Factors
Social Factors
- Media (ads, TV, magazine, websites)
- Peer pressure (pressure to conform)
- Dysfunctional families
- Sexual abuse
- Physical abuse
- Controlling relationships
- Romanticizing ED's : Tumblr
Human Sciences (Psychology) in relation to our real-life situation
Subsidiary Knowledge Question
How and to what extent can a human scientist determine the causality of a specific human behavior?
“The academic disciplines that study human behavior, human society, and social relationships” (Duggan).

Before determining causes, one must determine human behavior:
Binge Eating Disorder (BED)
Our perspective (Colomba & Pia)
-We're girls
-We see it around us
-We're influenced daily by those social factors

Our WOK's:
- Perception & Interpretation (personal knowledge)
- Intuition
- Emotion (Influenced by culture)
- Experience (friends)
Sufferer's perspective
Psychologist's perspective
Why does all of this matter?
Stress leads to anxiety -> Nido de Aguilas is well-know for that
Anxiety = Desire for food = Eating disorder
Teenagers are popular for suffering from ED's
We have to be able to look out for our own health and for symptoms in people around us
Mandal, Dr. Ananyra. "What Is an Eating Disorder?" News-Medical.net. N.p., 18 Sept. 2013. Web. 03 June 2014.
"Man is the measure"
-Ruben Abel
- Maura and her Binge Eating Disorder (BED)
"Eating disorders are mental illnesses that cause serious disturbances in a person’s everyday diet."
-Dr Ananya Mandal, MD
- Survival mechanism (feelings of helplessness, coping with overwhelming emotions)
- Comfort
- Perfectionism (anorexia)
- Low self-esteem
- Dissatisfaction with appearance
(body dismorphia)
- Other psychological disorders that can manifest ED's : depression, anxiety, OCD
Brownell, Kelly D. "Eating Disorders." Apa.org. N.p., Oct. 2011. Web. 03 June 2014.
Romanticism of Mental Illness by Kelsey Weaver
Weaver, Kelsey. "Romanticism of Mental Illness, Kelsey Weaver Http://t.co/cwrMx6MAbq." Veooz. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 June 2014.
From Tumblr.com
Thus, Carian. "Embarrassing Conditions: Binging on Junk Food While Sleeping | UA Magazine." UA Magazine. N.p., 17 Aug. 2012. Web. 03 June 2014.
Maura. "Personal Stories - Compulsive Overeating - The Something Fishy Website on Eating Disorders." Personal Stories - Compulsive Overeating - Something-Fishy.org. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 June 2014.
-Confirmed and verified
-Justified by evidence
-Manipulated and constant variables
-Reliable, precise, and testable results
Blue, Laura. "Is the Damage from Smoking Permanent?" Time. Time Inc., 01 July 2008. Web. 03 June 2014.

Involving humans:
-All humans act and think differently
- Cannot make uniform predictions
- Rely on introspection and empathy; others don't
- Impossible to completely isolate an event (against their own will)
- Humans lie and forget
Main factors in Maura's case
Possible Biological Factors
-Hypotalamic Disfunction
-Genetic mutations that cause food addiction (still researching).
-Low levels of serotonin (chemical that acts as a neurotransmitter)

Main Factor's in Amy's case
- Abnormal serotonin chemistry in brain
- Medications (ex. antidepressants) can trigger manic episodes which can lead to BPD
- Genetics ? (80 % likelihood to pass on)
”We are studying things which is doing the study” (Alchin).
"I'm quite an insecure person. I'm very insecure about the way I look. The more insecure I felt, the more I'd drink..."
-Amy Winehouse
Some symptoms that connects to Maura's situation:

-Eating unusually large amounts of food
-Frequently eating alone
-Experiencing depression and anxiety
-Feeling depressed, disgusted, ashamed, guilty, or upset about your eating

Possible Psychological Factors:
Comorbidity = The presence of additional conditions with the initially diagnosed illness.
Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Binge-eating Disorder." Diseases and Conditions. Mayo Clinic, 03 Apr. 2012. Web. 02 June 2014.
Smith, Melinda, Robert Segal, and Jeanne Segal. "Binge Eating Disorder." : Symptoms, Causes, Treatment, and Help. Help Guide - A Trusted Non-profited Resource, Feb. 2014. Web. 01 June 2014.

Alchin, Nicholas. "Chapter 8: Human Sciences." Theory of Knowledge. 2nd ed. London: Hodder Murray, 2006. 156-82. Print.
Genetics (related to Natural Sciences)
Toro, Natalia. "Determining Causality of Human Behaviors." Telephone interview. 2 June 2014.
-"Inherited biological and genetic factors contribute approximately 56% of the risk for developing an eating disorder" (Mental Help Team *Psychologists*).

-Polygenic inheritance affects:
Neurotransmitters behavior
Structure of hypothalamus

-Other inherited genes:
Obsessive and anxious inherited traits lead to ED's

Determines cause to GREAT extent -> Natural Science
Possible Social Factors:
-Family dysfunction
-No motherly guidance
-Sexual abuse

Answering the KQ
How and to what extent can a human scientist determine causality (of a specific human behavior)?
1) Patient's diagnostic
2) Focus of possible factors
3) To what extent?
Depends on which factor is affecting the patient's behavior
Never 100% certain since it is human science
Psychologist's WOK's:

- Logic/Reason
- Intuition
- Evidence (from shared knowledge in human sciences)
- "Must restrain to emotion" (Natalia Toro).
Sufferer's WOK's:
- Perception (personal knowledge)
- Belief
- Interpretation
- Emotion
- Imagination
- Evidence (what THEY perceive as evidence,
ex. someone thinking they're fat with the
logic that someone else is skinnier than
- Eating for comfort
- Survival mechanism for coping daily
(+ Also led to comorbidity = depression)
"Bipolarity is is often caused by the presence of comorbid conditions, which have become the rule rather than the exception."
How do they (human scientists) know this?
- Surveys = Generalization = Shared Knowledge = Evidence
- Truth tests (coherence & correspondence)
- Technology (AOK: Natural Sciences: measuring chemical imbalances)

- Drug & alcohol abuse, anorexia
- Seasonal change & Amount of sunlight (theory)
- Stress (from public eye)
"Bipolar Disorder Explained: Causes - Causes - Bipolar Disorder - Black Dog Institute." Bipolar Disorder Explained: Causes - Causes - Bipolar Disorder - Black Dog Institute. N.p., 1 Oct. 2013. Web. 04 June 2014.
( ! Problem of induction ! )
( Knowing facts about one factor more than the other & then finding out something new from another factor can cause a paradigm shift)
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