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Photosynthesis Timeline

A timeline outlining the advancements in our understanding of the photosynthetic process from the early 1600's to present day.

Shaumithri Kulendran

on 28 November 2012

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Transcript of Photosynthesis Timeline

1600 1650 1700 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 1648 Jan Baptiste van Helmont Dispelled the theory that plants received nutrients exclusively from soil.
Proven experimentally by studying the total mass of a potted willow tree and mass of the dispelled soil in the pot.
Instead, Helmont concluded that components of the air and water must account for the change in mass. (eoEarth, 2012) © Hulton-Deutsch Collection/CORBIS 1699 John Woodward Rejected the idea that water was the nutrient used by plants.
Proven experimentally by measuring the mass of water given to a plant, and change in the mass of plant (which was typically less than the initial mass of water given).
Hypothesized instead, that most of this water was exhaled into the atmosphere via pores on plant leaves. (Crops Review, 2012) Macroevolution.net, 2011 1724 Stephen Hales Thought that air passed in and out of the surface of a plant.
Noted that light enters the leaf of a plant.
Hypothesized that this light interaction plays a role in plant growth. (Crops Review, 2012) 1754 Charles Bonnet Through investigations identified the function of leaves.
Found that when submerged in water, bubbles were produced by the releasing of an unknown gas. (Govindjee & Beatty, 2004) ©2012 Soylent Communications 1774 Joseph Priestley Concluded that plants take in fixed air, also known as carbon dioxide, and release oxygen into the environment.
Stated that oxygen was vital for animal life.
Determined experimentally by placing a mouse in an air tight container
- the mouse dies when alone in the container
- the mouse lives if accompanied by a plant
(Priestley 1774). ©2012 Soylent Communications 1779 Jan Ingen- Housz Concluded that:
Light is vital for photosynthesis
Only the green part of the plant performs this process
The plant will respire as much "waste" into the air as it does replenish "good air". (Referring to the two components of air now known as carbon dioxide and oxygen. (Senfelder, 1914) 1785 Jean Senebier Established that "fixed air", now referred to as carbon dioxide, is needed for photosynthesis (Govindjee and Krogmann 2005)
Proved this experimentally
Leaves exposed to light and submerged in noraml water did not oxygen, as leaves submerged in water with a high concentration of carbon dioxide. (Journal of Experimental Botany, 1985) © 2012 Muséum d'histoire naturelle, Genève 1818 Pierre Joseph Pelletier
& Joseph Bienaimé Caventou The pair of french chemists, were able to isolate the green pigment in plants.
This pigment was identified as the principle light absorbing molecule in plants.
The green pigment was given the name: "chlorophyll" ©2012 Wellcome Library,London Pierre Joseph Pelletier Joseph Bienaimé Caventou 1837 René-Joachim-Henri Dutrochet Recognized the importance of chlorophyll for the use of carbon dioxide in plants
Studied in depth about plant respiration and diffusion through semi permiable membranes (like those found in plants). (Myer, 2008) © Academic, 2000-2010 Wordpress Julius Robert von Mayer 1845 Suggests that all energy used by living organisms is derived from the sun
Proposes that the process of photosynthesis can be described as the conversion of light energy from the sun in to chemical energy (photobiology, 2012). © by Richard Culham - Demonstrated that starch grains produced by the leaves serve as the first visible product of photosynthesis
- Suggested that this starch is only formed in the "chlorophyll grains", better known as the chloroplasts.
- Concluded that starch was also vital to plant growth (Govindjee & Beatty, 2004) Julius Von Sachs 1862 © 2012 Evi Technologies Ltd Named the process: photosynthesis
Added to Julius Mayer's theory, saying that “Photosynthesis is a series of processes in which electromagnetic energy is converted to chemical free energy...” (Govindjee & Beatty, 2004) Charles Barnes 1893 Arthur Stoll
& Richard Willstatter 1913 German chemist better known as Richard Martin Willstätter.
Arthur Stoll; a Swiss biochemist
Both published in depth studies of the structure and chemistry of the green pigment in plants; chlorophyll (NNDB, 2012). ©2012 Soylent Communications Cornelis van Niel 1941 Demostrated experimentally that the photosynthetic bacteria that uses dihyrogen monosulfide as an electron donor produces sulfur as opposed to oxygen.
Proves that oxygen released in the process of photosynthesis is produced from water (Chung, Kim-Thom, 2010)
2 H2A + CO2 --- >2A + CH2O + H2O In the above equation, "A" represents sulfur in Neil's experiment, and Oxygen in photosynthesis Accredited to discovering photophosphorylation
Shows that chloroplasts need light energy to create ATP
First to demonstrate the completion of photosynthesis outside of a living plant cell (Emeritus, 1994) Daniel Arnon 1954 © 2011 The Regents of
The University of California. suggests that light reactions of photosynthesis consist of two separate photochemical systems.
Proved experimentally, by illuminating algae Chlorella with only red light, only blue light and red and blue light simultaneously.
By measured, he found that the oxygen evolved in blue light was greater than in red light.
Also found that oxygen evolved in both together was greater than separately (Govindjee & Beatty, 2004). 1954 Robert Emerson © 2009 University of Illinois 1960 Robin Hill & Fay Bendall Proposed the "Z scheme" model for photosynthesis and its light reactions.
Hill and Bendall's model stated that the reactions take place in two photosystems
According to the model, each photsystem operates using lights of different wavelengths (Govindjee & Beatty, 2004) © Copyright University of Cambridge 2005 The modern day "z scheme" showing both photosystems Crystallized the photosynthetic reaction center from a purple bacterium
Using X-ray diffraction techniques, the three biochemists were able to determine the detailed structure of the reaction centre (Govindjee & Beatty, 2004) Hans Deisenhofer,
Hartmut Michel & Robert Huber 1984 FEBS Congress © 2013 © Frankfurter
Allgemeine Zeitung © Copyright 2012 Meike Duch
& Andreas Lietzow PHOTOSYNTHESIS TIMELINE 1 UNIT= 25 YEARS Kabayashi, along with his coworkers performed intensive research on the primary pigment in photosynthesis
identify the primary electron acceptor of green sulfur bacteria as a chlorophyll a derivative. (Govindjee & Beatty, 2004) Koichi Kobayashi 2000 Copyright © 2012 by the President
and Fellows of Harvard College Michael T. Madigan 2009 Discovered a bacteria that seemed to perform a different type of photosynthesis
suggested that green plants only use water as an electron donor, while some photosynthetic bacteria can use arsenic compounds to undergo photosynthesis (Crosby, 2011) ©2012 SIU Board of Trustees
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