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Foreign Policy of Cold War 8.1.2

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by

Mark Behnke

on 11 April 2016

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Transcript of Foreign Policy of Cold War 8.1.2

The Cold War
8.1.2 Foreign Policy
Development of U.S. Nat'l. Security
Communism in China & Korea
Berlin Crisis
Communism in Cuba
Vietnam War
Confrontations in:
Chile
Angola
Guatemala
Iran
Establishment of U.S. Nat'l. Security
President Truman proposed a unified organization of the
DoD
Department of Defense
or
1947
or
National Military Establishment
Nat'. Military Establishment
Includes:
Central Intelligence Agency
National Security Council
U.S. Air Force
Joint Chiefs of Staff
All under the direction of the
Secretary of Defense
DoD
gather
info. about foreign gov't.'s, foreign corporations, and foreign individuals
analyzing
that info. and then
providing
national security intel. to POTUS
USSR had the KGB
Spies...Spooks
Covert Ops....Black Ops
responsible for global monitoring, collection, decoding, translation and analysis of communications & info. systems
Big Brother
is
watching
NSA
Bad
NSA
Good
Asia
China
Korea
China
China
Mao Zedong
trying to bring communism or
CCP
Chinese Communist Party
Chiang kai-shek
led the Republic of China or Nationalists
civil war
v.s.
Mao
Chiang
After WWII ends & Japan is kicked out
U.S. is in tough spot with........policy of containment
What should Truman do?
The U.S. sends Chiang $2 billion
but it's not enough
1949 Mao and China go Communist
Korea
Kim Il Sung
wants to unify Korea under one communist regime
After WWII Korea is divided by
Syngman Rhee
leader of South Korea
North Korea
38th Parallel
Above the line they set up a communist country
Below the line they set up a Democratic / capitalist country
In 1950 the Communists crossed the 38th parallel
The
UN
voted to defend South Korea
Gen. MacArthur is in charge of all UN forces
North Korean communists kicked the crap out of the UN forces
MacArthur & his troops were pushed down to
Pusan
........where he launched a counterattack
Half his men landed at
Inchon
and outflanked the opponent
UN forces pushed the N. Koreans above the 38th
Decision Time for Truman & MacArthur
Attack or not to Attack???
Truman says go ahead but be careful
MacArthur advances almost all the way to China
The Chinese Communists CCP entered into the fray
Now, MacArthur & the UN troops are in trouble
The communists chase the UN forces all the way below the 38th
MacArthur loses Seoul, again
MacArthur wants a total war & Truman wants a limited war
Truman & MacArthur publicly get in a disagreement
A new general will lead the UN troops back to recover all of South Korea
July of 1953 armistice
DMZ
or demilitarized zone is established at the
38th parallel
DMZ
N. Korea
stays commie
S. Korea
stays Democratic
Berlin Crisis
After the Berlin Blockade/airlift things continued to dissolve in Berlin
Something had to give
The Berlin Wall will stay up for 28 years
Cuba
The Cuban Revolution started in 1958 when rebels began forcing out Cuban Dictator
Batista
In 1952 Army Sergeant Batista ran for President, but when he was going to lose he seized power and canceled the elections
Specifically a young group of rebellious, charismatic, politically active Cubans
Many Cubans were disgusted by this
Fidel Castro
Raul Castro
Che Guevarra
In 1958 these rebels used guerilla attacks against Batista
As Castro & the boys fought they were able to convince many of the soldiers to switch sides and join them
Cuban people greeted them as liberators & Castro's victory was inevitable
In Jan. of 1959 Castro entered Havanna & took over the country
Castro replaces an oppressive dictator........but he will flirt with communism
Communism may now only be 90 miles south of Miami
Holy Crap!
Bay of Pigs
CIA had told our young, new President JFK that they had a plan to get Castro
CIA misled him on the plan
CIA would train Cuban exiles to lead a counter revolution against Castro
JFK pulled the air support & the whole plan blew up
Low point for JFK & CIA
Castro and the commies get a huge W
The U.S. becomes obsessed with getting Castro
Cuban Missile Crisis
http://www.history.com/topics/cold-war/cuban-missile-crisis
U.S. U-2 plane took pictures of the Soviets building nuclear missile sites in Cuba
JFK & U.S. decided to send U.S. ships down to quarantine or block Cuba
Soviet ships met our ships off the coast of Florida "Eyeball to Eyeball"????
13 Days in Oct. of 1962 we came as close to Nuclear Holocaust or WWIII as we ever have
Khruschchev decided to turn around & it appeared that the U.S. had won
In reality a deal was cut between U.S. & USSR
USSR promised to take down existing missiles & not ever put any in Cuba
U.S. promised never to invade Cuba
Secretly JFK promised to take down missiles in Turkey
However, the world doesn't know about it for years
Cuba stays commie but not Nuclear.....NO WWII
Trade Embargo
Starting in 1960 the U.S. started an economic, commercial, & financial embargo of Cuba
NO Imports!
Good or Bad?
Castro Boys
The Vietnam War
Southeast Asia or Vietnam or French Indochina
The French had colonized this area a hundred years earlier
Ho Chi Minh was a native who wanted to run out the French & go commie
In the late 1930's the Japanese took over French Indochina in WWII
During WWII the U.S. and Ho Chi Minh fought against Japan
When WWII ended Ho Chi Minh delcared Vietnam independent
However, the French want back in, & France is our ally
Ho Chi Minh is now better at fighting & they fight the French
•The U.S. sent $ & military advisors
In 1954 at
Dien Bien Phu
the French got whooped & they decided to go home
What does the U.S. do now?
Geneva Accords
U.S. & Ho Chi Minh sat down & agreed to:
• divide the country @ 17th parallel
• Elections would be held in 1956
North Vietnam would be commie
South Vietnam would be Democratic
Elections of 1956
Commies have
Ho Chi Minh
South Vietnam has
Ngo dinh Diem
Our problem is...he's corrupt, incompetent, and hated by the Vietnamese peopl...but he's not a Commie
Ngo dinh Diem was going to lose the election so we canceled the election
Eventually we have Ngo dinh Diem executed & we get a new guy
Vietnam stays divided & caught in the ideological war
Ho Chi Minh continued to get stronger
VC or Charlie were Vietnamese from the South who were Communists
VC would smuggle supplies & weapons
U.S. continued to send $ & military advisors
In 1963 JFK gets shot & LBJ becomes the President
LBJ wants to appear strong against Communism
In 1964, a destroyer, U.S.S. Maddox was shot at by the North Vietnamese
The Maddox was patrolling the Gulf of Tonkin
LBJ asked Congress for the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
to use all force necessary to repel the enemy....Congress granted it
In 1965 the U.S. launched Operation Rolling Thunder
In the beginning we thought we could bomb them into submission
We were wrong.......
In June of 1965 we had 50,000 American combat troops in Vietnam
We have now Americanized the war
61% of American public supported the war
President Lyndon Baines Johnson or
LBJ
Secretary of Defense
Robert McNamara
General
William Westmoreland
Army of the Republic of Vietnam
or
ARVN
Soldiers from South Vietnam
Westmoreland didn't think they were good enough & by the end of 1965 we had 180,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam
By the end of 1967 we had 500,000 U.S. troops on the ground
We are
'all in'
at this point
The Fighting
Ho Chi Minh and the North Vietnamese Communists used guerilla tactics
• hit & run
• ambush
• booby traps
• tunnels
• sweltering heat
• rain, rain, rain
• knowledge of terrain
• VC
"Battle for the Hearts & Minds"
"Just remember this, Communist guerillas hid among the people. If you win the people over to your side, the Communist guerillas have no place to hide"
This was more difficult than it sounded
We couldn't win anyone over as we:
• Napalm
• Agent Orange
• Search & Destroy
• "Body Count Strategy"
All of these things were destroying the homes, families, and lives of the people we were trying to win over
Sinking Morale of U.S. soldiers
•Why are we here?
•Failure to gain ground
inept S. Vietnamese leadership

• politics at home
Young people....led by college students started to question the war
SDS
or Students for a Democratic Society
Doves or Hawks
The anti-war movement began as just kids but
1968
Everything changed
TET Offensive
Asian New Year.....the Commies attacked South Vietnam
The U.S. defends everywhere & turns back the offensive but ......the public has seen too much
After TET the adults are starting to agree with the kids about the war......time to get out
Many Americans are now questioning our role in Vietnam & our role in the policy of containment
LBJ announces he won't run for re-election
RFK or Bobby Kennedy gets shot
The Democrats are imploding because of Vietnam
Election of 1968
Former VP Richard Nixon becomes the President of the U.S.
Nixon has promised to get us out of Vietnam....but how?
Nixon attempted to negotiate a deal with the North Vietnamese Communists but ......no deal could be made
The war waged on
In 1972 Nixon won re-election by still promising to
Vietnamize
the war
Slowly turning the responsibility for the war over to the South Vietnamese
In Jan. of 1973 the U.S. agreed to leave Vietnam as long as N. Vietnam promised to be nice
American G.I.'s go home and fighting stopped
1975 N. Vietnam attacked S. Vietnam & city of
Saigon
falls
Saigon Falls
Vietnam War is over
Proxy Wars
.....
are a war instigated by a major power which does not itself become involved
Iran
U.S., led by the CIA, initiated a coup in Iran in 1953
They removed the democratically elected Mohammed Mossadegh
The Iranian government had nationalized the oil industry in 1951 & kick out the British
U.S. put in a royal monarch Shah Mohmmed Rez Pahlavi
The Shah stayed in power & and ally of the U.S. for 26 years until 1979 when the Iranian people overthrew him
Iranian-U.S. relations ended & the U.S. backed Iraq & Saddam Hussein in an 8 year war
Guatemala
In the early 1950's Guatemalan leader Jacobo Guzman began to fight back against oppressive land owners
They began to nationalize he land, of which 42% of the country was owned by United Fruit Co., & they didn't pay any taxes
In 1954 the CIA led a coup of these liberal, leftist, communist leaders & Guzman fled to Cuba
The new U.S. backed dictator gave the land back to the United Fruit Co., & outlawed unions, illiterate voting, all political parties, & burned subersive materials
Chile
Salvador Allende had been in power for 3 years in Chile and had nationalized various businesses, education, and healthcare
In 1973 the CIA backed a coup d'etat in Chile by killing Allende & replacing him with
Augusto Pinochet
More than 40,000 people were arrested and more than 5,000 were killed
The U.S. looked the other way as Chile stayed non-commie
Angola
In 1975 the west African country of Angola had a bloody civil war
By 1980 Cuban & Soviet backed People's movement controlled most of the country & forced the withdrawal of American & South African troops
By the 1970's & 80's most places were tired of picking a side in the Cold War
Full transcript