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Speech Independent Gestures

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Danielle Melidona

on 5 March 2014

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Transcript of Speech Independent Gestures

CHAPTER 7
Gestures & Culture
Gestures & Politicians
PURPOSE
What are speech-independent gestures?
"Speech-independent gestures are nonverbal acts that have a direct verbal translation or dictionary definition, usually consisting of a word or two, or a phrase" (Knapp, 2013, p.201).

Also known as emblems or autonomous gestures.

Examples
Nose Wrinkle = "I'm disgusted!" or "Phew! It stinks!"
One finger vertically placed over your lips = "Quiet"
Thumbs up in America = "I approve"
Speech Independent Gestures
Knapp, M. L., Hall, J. A., & Horgan, T. G. (2013).
Nonverbal communication in human interaction (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Cengage Learning.
REFERENCES
Casasanto, D. & Jasmin, K. (2010). Good and bad in the hands of politicians: Spontaneous gestures during positive and negative speech. PLoS ONE 5(7).
Sowden, H., Perkins, M., & Clegg, J. (2008). The co-development of speech and gesture in children with autism. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, 22(10/11), 804-813.
Matsumoto, D., & Hwang, H. (2013). Cultural similarities and differences in emblematic gestures. Journal Of Nonverbal Behavior, 37(1), 1-27.
Ronnie Carson, Gabrielle Lipps, Danielle Melidona, Elizabeth Murrary & Donna Young
PRESENTED BY:
to determine whether ‘body-specific’ associations of space and valence can be observed beyond the laboratory in spontaneous behavior, and whether these implicit associations have visible consequences.
BODY-SPECIFICITY HYPOTHESIS
People with different bodily characteristics should form correspondingly different mental representations, even in highly abstract conceptual domains
Analyzed speech and gesture (3012 spoken clauses, 1747 gestures) from the final debates of the 2004 and 2008 US presidential elections, which involved two right-handers (Kerry, Bush) and two left-handers (Obama, McCain).
Gestures & Politicians
CONCLUSION
Speakers associate positive messages more strongly with dominant hand gestures and negative messages with non-dominant hand gestures, revealing a hidden link between action and emotion. Results supported and extended the body-specificity hypothesis.
The hand that speakers use for spontaneous gestures provides an index of their feelings about the content of the co-occurring speech. If listeners can track which hand a speaker uses to gesture, they may be able to receive subtle clues to the speaker’s attitude toward the things they are talking about.
Previously tested
PURPOSE
First study that cataloged and compared emblems across different cultural groups to a standard list of verbal messages.
Encoders from six world regions produced potential emblems from a standard verbal message list.
Gestures that were encoded by at least 70% of the encoders in a region were shown to observers from the same regions, and gestures that were judged correctly as the message intended by at least 70% of the decoders in that region were considered emblems.
Gestures & Culture
STUDY
Compiled video clips of men and women performing various gestures and showed them to participants.
Observers were asked to view the gesture in the video clips and indicate its meaning by selecting one of five response choices provided.
For each gesture, a multiple-choice response format was created that included the intended verbal message and four other unintended messages selected randomly from the verbal messages for other gestures.
Gestures & Culture
CONCLUSION
Inspection of the different messages conveyed suggested that the culturally similar gestures included more basic or elemental messages than did the culturally variant ones.
Gestures in Children with Autism
STUDY
Looked at two children under the age of three; attend therapy three mornings a week for six-ten months.
Gestures in Children with Austism
GESTURES & AUTISM
Children with ASD engage in reaching and requesting gestures until they have gained and object or action.
Autism
: a pervasive developmental disorder of children, characterized by impaired communication, excessive rigidity, and emotional detachments.
Four times more common in boys than girls; diagnosed by age two.
More frequent in siblings.
Gestures in Children with Autism
INTRODUCTION
Phases of complex movement:
Preparation / positioning of the hand or arm
An optional pause
The performance of the gesture
Another optional pause
Retraction of the hand or arm
Gesture is considered to be an extremely complex component of communication closely related to speech.
They often times use an adult’s hand as the tool to point out what they.
All these gestures may occur with eye contact, at times no eye contact at all.
Gestures in Children with Autism
FINDINGS
Delay in development of speech and gesture
Activity
As a class will you be able to guess the different meanings on each hand gesture?
Children participated in various activities including: matching objects, jigsaw puzzles and playing with a dollhouse.
Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)
Therapy combines of non-directed play, directed tasks, and PECS training
Expect children to integrate gesture speech as they approach 2 years of age
Level of language impairment is crucial to integration of speech and gesture
This study shows “promising early designs that children with autism develop language and gesture with the same developmental trajectory as typical children”
United Kingdom & Austraila
Right Hand or Left Hand?
Yes and No
Head Gestures
QUESTIONS?
Gesture with Care
"The fig"
"V for victory"
USA
USA
Brazil &
Germany
USA
Spain
USA
USA
Iran
USA
Greece
Bulgaria
USA
There were
16 gestures
that met the 70% recognition criterion for one model but not the other.
Three types of cultural differences in emblems were observed.
Difference in the form of an emblem across cultures in relation to the same verbal message
Differences in meaning to the same forms
Culturally unique emblems
Full transcript