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The Biomechanics of forearm passing a volleyball

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Fábio Chavinha

on 12 January 2014

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Transcript of The Biomechanics of forearm passing a volleyball

Analysis of the Volleyball Forearm Pass Biomechanics
Foot placement
Feet shoulder-wight apart, one foot slightly in front of the other, on balls of the feet, down and ready.
Forearm angles
Forearm angle should be approximately 45 degrees from parallel with the floor
Biomechanic Concepts
Passing takes place in the sagittal plane -- flexion and extension movement on the AP axis
- Volleyball passing is essential. The team that cannot pass the ball, cannot win the game, it's that simple. Passing the ball begins the play and allows a team to get the ball to its hitters to score points. Learning to pass should be your first priority when learning to play.
Stages of passing:
1. Foot placement
2. Hand placement
3. Forearm angles
4. Forearm contact
Hand placement
Hands should be extended fully and pointed downwards so there is a flat surface extending from the shoulder all the way down to the hands
Forearm contact
Contact the ball in the "sweet-spot." Sweet spot is in between wrists and elbow joint on anterior side, and inferior from anatomical position
Most commom errors
1. The pass will be too high and will allow the defense to regroup. Also, some people have a small angle which makes the pass low and doesn't allow your setter to get underneath in time to make a good set.

2. Angle of arms -- If angle is too low or too high, this negatively affects the height of the ball. For example, if a passer has his angle of arms perpendicular to the floor, the ball will have no height. If the passer has his angle of arms parallel to the floor, the ball with go straight up, possibly even behind (based on Magnus Effect)

3. Body Position -- If body is not turned with shoulders pointed to the setter position, than the ball will go awry.
1. Angle of arms -- Keep the forearms at approximately 40-45 degrees depending on power and speed of the ball. The more power and speed of the ball, the lower the angle has to be and vice versa.

2. Body position -- Always keep shoulders turned to the setter position with one foot in front of the other.
Based on biomechanics, what is the proper way to forearm pass a volleyball?

Angular speed and velocity -- The angular speed will change based of the power of the incoming ball. The more power = the smaller the angler and less power in the lower extremities (Absorption of Forces)

Stability and balance -- if the user is too far forward on toes, the pass will be low, if the user is back on hells, the ball will be too high

Magnus Effect -- Whenever a ball is hit, it is usually hit with topspin, therefore according the Magnus Effect, the Magnus Force will push the ball down at a higher rate which will mean the passer will need a smaller angle

Dayton, L., & Jeffery, N. (n.d.). Applying Biomechanics to Sport (pp. 3-27). N.p.: McGraw Hill. Retrieved December 7, 2013, from http://www.oup.com.au/titles/secondary/health__and__physical_education/physical_education/queensland/9780195573862/03_RUS_QSPE_3pp.pdf

Basic biomechanics book

Rate of change in the angular position or orientation of a line segment. Due to the momentum of the incoming ball, passing should not be done with the arms (arms should not swing above chest level).
Angular Speed and Velocity
Resistance to disruption of equilibrium. Passer should be down and ready in a universal stance -- on balls of toes, feet shoulder width apart, one foot slightly in front of the others, arms extended fully in front of the body
Stability and Balance
Deviation in the trajectory of a spinning object toward the direction of spin, resulting from the Magnus Force. When the incoming ball has either top spin or back spin, changes in angular speed and velocity will occur.

-Top spin = ball will drop quicker
-Back spin ("Knuckleball") = ball will rise
-Golf Balls vs. Volleyballs -> Same concept, but since there is no dimples, the ball usually has top spin and will drop due to pressure
Magnus Effect
1. Angular Speed and Velocity
2. Stability and Balance
3. Magnus Effect
Muscles Used (Lower Extremities)
Tensor Fascia Latae
Rectus Femoris
Tibialis Anterior
Muscles Used (Upper Extremities)
Latissimus Dorsi
When do we use the Forearm Pass?
Why do we use the Forearm Pass?
- The key to passing is ball control – learning to judge how fast the ball is coming, what kind of spin it has on it and how you need to adjust in order to get it to the same spot every time. Serves vary in speed and type, but no matter what kind of serve you get, your goal is to have your pass go right to the top of the setter’s head without making him move.
- Receiving opponent’s serve (when the pass is called a serve receive)

- Playing defense after opponent's attack (when the pass is called a dig)

The purpose of a pass is to direct the approaching ball to the setter who is the playmaker of the team.

- Passer is the first person to touch the ball when it is travelling over the net.

- Pass may also be called a bump, or a serve receive or a dig as mentioned earlier.

How do we use the Forearm Pass?
1. Movement to the ball (by shuffling);
2. Stop the movement;
3. Remember to keep the basic position (balanced, low);
4. Keeping the ball in front of your body (if possible. Also other techniques exist.);
5. Place the platform under the ball and direct it toward the setter;
6. No swinging with arms. No need to push heavily with legs.

Ready Position
Before the server contacts the ball, get into ready position so that when the ball crosses the net, you will be ready to move to it and pass the ball.

- Put your feet in a wide but comfortable stance (more than shoulder width apart.)
- Bend deeply at your knees, bend forward at the waist and put your weight on your toes.
- Hold your arms loosely slightly in front of you and to your sides.Do not yet connect your hands.

• Wrists together (interlock fingers; hands together)
• Feet parallel
• Arms straight
• Carry the ball
• Arms slightly away from chest • Extend knees forward
• Arms pointed downward about 45˚
. Follow through to target

Fábio Almeida Chavinha
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