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Copy of The magical theory of relativity
Transcript of Copy of The magical theory of relativity
- Electrons, Protons, Neutrons
"stuff" in the universe we've talked about classification of stars Stelliferous Era stars, galaxies, galaxy clusters, etc.
began appearing right around here 10^6 years after the big bang, or about a million years we are dead. The end of the stelliferous era
about 10^14 or 100000000000000 years after the big bang
(10^15 - 10^39 years after the big bang) What's left?
- Brown dwarfs
= White dwarfs
- Neutron stars
- Black Holes That's 1000000000000000 - 1000000000000000000000000000000000000000 years It's speculated that protons will begin to decay in this era. Degenerate Era even though that completely goes against the laws of physics Soon even the dwarf stars will run out of fuel and the sole survivors of this eradication are the black holes The Black Hole Era 10^40 to 10^100 years 10000000000000000000000000000000000000000 years to 10000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 years But even black holes slowly evaporate, through a quantum process known as Hawking Radiation. And that would mark the end of the universe as we know it ? The Dark Era and this would mark the end of the stars era Hubble eXtreme Deep Field Photons, the kings of the universe in the Dark Era The universe settles down to a point where there no activity. This is called the "heat death", a state where there is no thermodynamic energy left. And eventually, as the universe continues to expand bigger and bigger, the temperature will asymptotically approach absolute zero. Even hell itself freezes over. 4 billion years from now Today Keep in mind this whole process takes about 3 billion years The five distinct eras of the Big Chill/Freeze
- Primordial Era
- Stelliferous Era <-- we are in this era now
- Degenerate Era
- Black Hole Era
- Dark Era The Big Crunch The Big Crunch We know that more mass is equivalent to a stronger gravitational force and the universe has a lot of mass which means it has a lot of gravitational force < So naturally whatever has kept the universe expanding since the big bang must eventually succumb to gravity, right? If you put it that way, it makes sense that the universe must eventually collapse in on itself, just like how stars do. that's basically what the Big Crunch theory suggests it seemed like a valid theory, at least until we found out this wasn't the case Scientists measured the redshift from several class 1A supernovas. what they found was that not only was the universe expanding; it was accelerating. SPEECHLESS... If the universe is infinite, the means we must have a near infinite amount of stars.This is known as Olbers' paradox WHY IS THE SKY DARK AT NIGHT? but that's obviously not the case Standard Model DARK ENERGY by Sean Carroll So what does that tell us about the Big Crunch theory? Now that we know the universe is in no danger of succumbing to its own gravitational force... it's highly unlikely the Big Crunch is ever going to happen that's why the Big Crunch is a NO crunch so with dark energy in the equation, what's next? which means the universe must reach a maximum point in expansion This sprung forth many different theories outside of the Big Crunch. such as the Big Bounce Theory The Big RIP we could end up in tears... The Universe The big rip assumes a scenario in our universe where dark energy eventually overwhelms gravity and, as a result... this happens As dark energy takes over, the universe will continue to expand faster and faster as gravity slowly starts to lose its grip followed by galaxies followed by stars & planets and finally the very atoms that compose matter When this could happen, we don't know for sure That depends on the pressure dark energy has on our universe However, one thing we do know for certain is that dark energy exists. A recent study shows that scientists are 99.996% sure it exists. That's as certain as CERN was when announcing the Higgs Boson But that's about all we really know Earth during the big rip Basically, think of dark energy as "anti-gravity". Instead of attracting other objects, it repels. What happens after? The universe will continue
expanding. There will still be matter, just disintegrated to an extent that it can't be recovered anymore and the universe will become a cold and quiet place once again If you think about it, the Big Rip really isn't that much different from the Big Chill. Through the process is different, the end result is still the same: a quiet, cold, desolate, wasteland or dark energy might end up surprising us. Who knows? We just don't know enough as of right now. but with the existence of dark energy proven, the Big Rip theory seems the most likely out of all three No matter which scenario is right... the universe still has a few tens of billion years to go which leaves us plenty of time to look for answers for a universe without gravity... think about it soon galaxy clusters will begin disbanding the universe should have reached its maximum expansion point at around 7 billion years after the big bang The Big Chill is only expected to happen if the density parameter of the universe (represented by Ω) is less than or equal to 1 Ω = average density of the universe / critical density of the universe The point that determines if a universe is expanding or contracting Similar to the Big Chill, the possibility of a big crunch can also be determined through the density parameter calculation Unlike the Big Chill, however, the Big Crunch will only happen if the Ω is greater than 1 Our universe's critical density is estimated to be approximately five atoms (of hydrogen) per cubic meter and just like the Big Chill, the Big Rip can only happen if Ω is less than or equal to 1. and even black holes DARK ENERGY Only black holes will remain, wandering around silently through empty space Scientists in 1998 decided to carry out an experiment however recent calculations show it could happen as soon as in 6 billion years! suggests that the universe will meet its doom in a "heat death" where there will be no thermodynamic energy left RECAP! Ω = average density of the universe / critical density of the universe if Ω > 1 then the universe will end in a Big Crunch if Ω < 1 OR Ω = 1 the universe will end in a big rip OR a big chill Example:
Average density of the universe = 3 atoms (of hydrogen) per cubic meter
Critical density of the universe = 2 atoms (of hydrogen) per cubic meter
What will happen? since Ω = 3/2 and 3/2 or 1.5 is greater than 1, we can expect a big crunch That's it! Good luck on the quiz!