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Denise Macedo

on 16 April 2014

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Transcript of Constructivism

Constructivism Theory in Learning


Misconceptions impede student learning, so a teacher must promote conceptual change and revise students' existing beliefs to facilitate better understanding.
A way to promote conceptual change would be by starting the lesson by posing a situation where they have to explain their stance. However, this gives for students to search information that will confirm their stance rather than oppose it.

Guide on the Side

Classroom community through collaborative learning.
Collaborative learning can be group projects, study groups or partners, and debate teams as they all incorporate community learning environments in the classroom, while providing an opportunity for students to gain multiple perspectives.
Provide students with the opportunity to make real-life connections that are meaningful to them.
For example, creating a dual habitat for a frog in biology class with a group or partner is an excellent way to provide authentic learning as students will have inquiries and will have to use their thinking skills for social learning as they create their learning environment from first hand experiences.
Students need constant assessment to ensure student learning is accurate and thorough.
On-going formative assessment is time consuming for educators and difficult to evolve to more norm-based forms of assessment, such as norm-referenced assessment.
Constructivist Approach

Continuous Assessment
Authentic Learning
Informal Formative

A positive community environment is the result of students working collectively towards a goal. When a teacher gives students a common goal, and puts students in groups to acheive a goal, students begin to foster positive learning experiences with each other. These positive learning experiences turn into positive feelings towards each other, and a positive environment of love and respect for the classroom as a community.
Active Learning
Active learning is when students are participating in learning by pair sharing, working in small groups, working on hands on activities, actively working to construct their knowledge through a variety of engaging activities.
In "guide on the side" teaching, a teacher approaches the classroom, with the thought that students are the main characters in their learning. The teacher is there to guide students in their learning, not to give answers.
Social Constructivism
According to Ormrod, schemes or schemas are the way that children organize their developing thoughts about things in life they have experienced. (Ormrod, 2011)

For example, when a child is a toddler and sees an ant outside, the toddler will continue to associate any insect outside as an ant until they are taught to identify various insects differently. Once the developing child gains more life experiences, the child will begin constructing in depth knowledge about the varying characteristics of insects, and will then be able to differentiate between ants, lady bugs, spiders, etc. The beauty of schemas, lies in their constant reconstruction of themselves as new experiences occur.
Scripts are a child's schemes to procedural events. (Ormrod, 2011) So, when a child has created a script in their cognitive development, a child understands the order or the sequential process of events.

For example, a child has created a script about birthday parties when they logically expect the following to occur at all birthday parties: 1) Invites are mailed out, 2) People attend the party with gifts, 3) People eat, 4) People play games, 5) People hit a pinata and get treats, 6) People sing happy birthday in front of a cake and 7) The birthday person opens up their gifts.
Informal Formative Assessments
Informal formative assessments are casual, every day assessments that a teacher can utilize to inform the teacher of: 1) A students beginning understanding of a new concept, and 2) A way to determine how much progress a student has made after learning new subject matter. (Ormrod, 2011) In constructivism, this assessment provides the appropriate scaffold to ensure that students are learning class material accurately to promote higher order thinking.
Positive Community Environment
Positive Community

Scaffolding is when a teacher carefully leads and directs a student to correct answers without explictly giving the answer away. The student is provided the opportunity to think critically, while being supported by answer options. For example, the teacher may provide either or scenarios such as: Do you think that this building is a house or an apartment? Would you say that you would like to live there, or not live there? Why?
Active Learning
Guide on the Side
Work Center Redesign
How is Constructivism applied in a classroom?
Created by
Denise Macedo,
Dharini Kumarasiri &
Melissa Mora
Learning and construction of knowledge are facilitated through the integration of experiences, collaboration, scripts, and schemas. (Ormrod, 2013)
Strengths and Weaknesses
A Constructivist might say...
Art CenterRedesign

- Jeanne Ormrod (Educational Psychology, 7th Edition) for her contributions in supporting our research
- 2SC for providing us with a video to analyze the constructive approach
- Google Images for enabling us to illustrate our theory through pictures
- YouTube for giving us a platform to upload our videos

We would like to thank...
Some assumptions about the Constructivist theory...
In Denise, Dharini and Melissa's constructivist-centered classroom, things would be done a bit differently...
The End
Full transcript