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Ski Presentation

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Julian Ley

on 17 October 2014

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Transcript of Ski Presentation

Useful Information about Skis
What was Skis used for
Why is\was skis made?
How has skis changed

Skiers and snowboarders typically regard any snow condition that is very hard as "ice". In fact, true ice
conditions are comparatively rare. Much of what is perceived to be ice is actually a frozen granular
condition—wet granular snow that has refrozen to form a very dense surface. Telling the difference is
comparatively easy; if one can get a ski pole to stand up in it, the surface is likely to be more of a frozen granular surface than an icy one—and while it is
certainly not as enjoyable as many other snow conditions, skilled skiers and snowboarders can successfully negotiate it. In fact, ice is a preferred condition
among racers, in that the surface tends to be quite fast and race course conditions tend to remain more consistent during the race, with fewer ruts developing
on the course. Another form of icy condition can be found at higher elevation resorts in the Rocky Mountains and in Europe; direct sunlight can melt the top
layers of snow crystals and subsequent freezing produces a very shiny, slick surface. Snowmaking machinery used at some ski resorts typically generates
hard-pack conditions.

A crust condition exists when soft snow is covered by a harder upper layer upon the surface. This crust can be created by freezing rain(precipitation formed in warmer upper levels of the atmosphere, falling into a temperature inversion at which surface temperatures are below freezing, and freezing on contact with the ground), by direct sunlight, and by wind loading which packs down the upper layers of the snowpack but leaves lower layers more or less unaffected. Crusts are extremely challenging conditions.

Dust on crust
A trace of new snow on top of crust. Undesirable.
Viking period - 7th Century to 11th Century

In the Viking period They used Skies as transportation so they could get to places faster.
The 17th Century
Only later in the mid 1800s they started to
use skis for fun instead of transportation.
Modern Time - the 21st Century
Whe still use skis for transportation today.
Viking Period 7th to 11th century
In the Viking period the skis were made out of wood. they did not use metal like we do today.
17th Century
Later in the 1990s
a new technology meshed with new materials in the seemingly never-ending search for the perfect ski construction was invented. Today, many other materials are used also.
Modern time the 21st Century
Today we use many kinds of metal for example

Though most of the development was done in the 1800s and 1900s, skis today are much
different than what ancient mn used 5,000 years ago. The first improvement to the skis was
done in 1850 by wood carvers in the area of Telemark, Norway. They created a better way to
evenly distribute the skier’s weight across the entire ski. They called it a cambered ski and it
had more of a bow shape with an arch toward the center of the ski.The next big advance in
skis was in 1868 by a man named Sondre Norheim. Norheim created a ski which was known
as the Telemark Ski. The Telemark Ski has a side cut on the ski, which narrowed the ski
underfoot. In 1893, the first two-layer laminated ski was made. It was created by H.M.
Christiansen who lived in Norway. The ski had either hickory or ash for its base, then
spruce or basswood for the body.In 1928, France created a prototype of the first solid
aluminum skis. In 1932, this was followed by the three-layered ski. This three-layered
ski was created by Bjorn Ullevoldsaeter. In 1934, there was a limited amount of production
on the solid aluminum skis. This was done in France by a man named M. Vicky. Today there
are many kinds of skis that you can chose from. Ranging from aluminum skis to aluminum
and fiberglass, the ski itself has not changed much over the years. The only change has
been the material we use.

What are good Kinds of Snow for skiing?

Spring conditions
A catch-all term ski areas use to describe conditions when numerous different surface types can be found on the mountain — usually in the later part of the season, although the term is sometimes used during an extended midwinter thaw. The term also generally reflects the presence of bare spots and/or areas of thin cover. With spring conditions, the snow is usually firm in early morning (even reaching frozen granular status if left ungroomed), breaking a softer corn or wet granular surface mid-day, and is often very soft and mushy in afternoon (many skiers refer to this type of snow condition as "mashed potatoes", due to its heaviness). In some instances when the snow is untracked, sun baked, slightly dirty, with the consistency of a snow cone, it is called "tecate powder". The speed with which conditions change on a given spring day is directly related to the exposure of the slope relative to the sun. In the northern hemisphere, east- and south-facing slopes tend to soften first; west-facing slopes generally soften by mid-day. North-facing slopes may hold on to their overnight snow conditions throughout the day.

A type of snow that forms when powder isn't skied on for a long period of time. It is essentially powder past its expiration date. The consistency is that of a thick and "sticky" powder, that provides lots of resistance; it often is covered by a crust of hard packed snow. It is prone to happening in large, open areas where there is little shelter from the wind. Its appearance often fools inexperienced skiers to believe it is fresh powder.

"Variable" simply means that all types of snow can be on the mountain, ranging from hard pack to crud. It is usually a secondary classification.

More facts about skis

Skiing is the act of gliding over snow on twin boards called skis. Many skiers enjoy the thrill of speeding down mountain trails. Others like the challenge of traveling long distances across flat or hilly terrain. Skiing is an extremely popular form of recreation. It is also an important competitive sport.
Alpine skiing refers to skiing downhill. It is popular as a form of recreation and as a competitive sport. The term Alpine comes from Alps, the name of the mountain system in Europe where downhill skiing originated.
Downhill skiing techniques. Alpine skiing involves many techniques and moves. However, the four basic maneuvers of downhill skiing are 1 schussing, 2 traversing, 3 turning, and 4 stopping. Skiers carry a ski pole in each hand to help them keep their balance while making these maneuvers.
The poles also aid skiers in walking and climbing.


Devlin, Iseult. "Skiing." World Book Student. World Book, 2014. Web. 30 Sept. 2014
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