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Operator Qualified Training

Four Star Construction
by

Emily Noble

on 20 February 2015

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Transcript of Operator Qualified Training

Operator Qualified Training
Guidelines to a covered task
A pipeline performance task is deemed
covered
if the activity passes the following four-part test:

1. Is it performed on a pipeline Facility?
2. Is it an operations or maintenance task?
3. Is it performed as a requirement for 49 CFR Part 195

(Liquid)
or 49 CFR Part 192
(Gas)
?
4. Does it affect the operation or integrity of the pipeline
facility?

If the answer to all four questions is
yes
, then the activity is considered
covered
and must figure into the evaluation process of the pipeline personnel.
2.0.0 Metal Substrates
Both Ferrous (steel) and non-ferrous (no iron content) metals are used today. If the metal substrate is not know, it may be generally classified using a magnet. A magnet will be attached to ferrous metals but will have little or not attraction to non-ferrous metals, such as brass. Carefully sanding a hidden portion of a metal to the bare surface may reveal zinc or tin plate on steel or the color and surface characteristics of non-ferrous metals.
What is the purpose of OQ Training?
Training is done to train the needs of construction, maintenance, and pipeline industries.

Excavating & Backfilling
2.0.0 OSHA Requirements

3.1.0 One-Call System

3.2.0 Alignment Maps

3.3.0 Temporary Markers
Four Star Construction Inc.
3.0.0 Initial Preparation Before Coating Application
Before coatings can be applied to a surface/substrate using a brush, roller, or the spray method, initial preparation tasks must be accomplished. These tasks include:
Protecting or masking the adjacent surfaces

Checking and establishing the proper surface and environmental conditions

Selecting and mixing the proper coating
4.0.0 Applying Coatings with a Brush
Applying coating with a brush is typically done when coating small areas, irregular surfaces, or when cutting in or stripe coating. Cutting in is the term used for coating inside corners and around trim edges brush or trim roller before applying the coating with a roller.
8.0.0 Recognize & React to Unexpected/Unintended Release or Encounter of Hazardous Liquid.
8.1.1 Enclosed Areas
No electrical equipment should be operated in the area. If power cannot safely be cut off at the switchgear, operations personnel must call the electrical supplier and have power cut off from outside the facility. Personnel should only be allowed to enter the area using appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE).
8.1.2 Outdoor Areas
After first assuring the protection of the public, report and release to control center operations and/or appropriate personnel. The source of product being released must be discovered and cut off. Sources of ignition must be avoided and the power cut off. Personnel must remove themselves to a safe location.
If the leak is from equipment at a remote station, drivers should approach the equipment from the upwind side of the station.
8.2.0 Notifications
An accident report is required for each failure in a pipeline system in which there is a release of hazardous liquids or carbon dioxide resulting in any of the following.
Any emergency that includes fire, explosion, or injury
Releases of five gallons or more of HVLs
All releases of water
Releases that exceed five or more barrels of product
Death of any person
Bodily harm
Estimated property damage exceeding $50,000
*The accident report should be filed with the National Response Center (NRC) no later than 30 days
after the discovery of the incident.

It was founded to address the severe workforce shortage facing the industry to develop a standardized training process and curricula.
2.0.0 OSHA Requirements
OSHA has strict and specific requirements that apply to any open excavation work, including trenches. The purpose of these requirements is to prevent injury and ensure safety among excavating workers.

All surface encumbrances that are located so to create a hazard to employees shall be removed or supported, as necessary, to safe guard employees.

The estimated location of utility installations, which may be encountered during excavation shall be determined prior to opening an excavation.

Structural ramps that are used solely by employees as a means of access and egress from excavations or ramps for equipment shall be designed by a competent person and built according to design.

3.1.0 One-Call System
Before beginning an excavation, you are required to notify local utilities and have the underground line locations identified.

The One-Call System is defined as a communication system established by two or more utilities, governmental agencies, or other operators of underground facilities in order to notify those about the intention to use equipment for excavating, demolition, or other work.

One-Call System is usually set up state-by-state
3.2.0 Alignment Maps
Alignment maps are used to help locate the pipeline (or other line) with relation to surface features and by depth.


Being proficient in reading maps and alignment sheets is highly important.

If there is a question about the accuracy of the maps or alignment sheets being used, a surveyor's map or blueprint should be obtained to pinpoint the exact location of the pipeline or cable right-of-way (ROW). In instances where no other information is available, it may be necessary to obtain the system installation as-built specifications.
3.3.0 Installing Temporary Markers
The standard 49 CFR 195.410 requires that each pipeline operator must accurately install and maintain line markers over buried pipelines.

The pipeline company's first responsibility is to physically locate the pipe. Temporary white markers are used to mark the proposed excavation or construction location.

Excavating & Backfilling Continued...
3.4.0 Determining Pipeline & Cable Depth

3.5.0 Mechanical Pipe Locators

3.6.0 Electronic Pipe Locators

4.1.0 Permanent Markers

6.0.0 Exposing Pipeline

6.1.0 Excavating

7.0.0 Dents & Gouges

10.0.0 Backfilling
7.0.0 Dents & Gouges
6.0.0 Exposing Pipeline
It is critical that the location is accurately known before the excavation begins.

6.1.0 Excavating
if the pipe is too deep to reach with the probe, one method of locating it is to machine-excavate to one-half the length of the probe.

6.1.1 Excavating and Shoring
When the pipe is first exposed and as the supporting materials is removed from under the pipe, skids or other supporting must be placed beneath the pipe about every 20 feet.

6.1.2 Soil Properties
OSHA has classified soils into four categories and determined the max allowable slope for each. The classifications are based on stability and range from stable rock at the high end to Type C at least stable.

6.3.1 Cave-Ins
Cave-ins are the most obvious dangers involved in excavations. When it is stated that one cubic yard of earth can weight 3,000 pounds, it is important to visualize how small an amount of earth that is.
3.4.0 Determining Pipeline & Cable Depth
3.5.0 Mechanical Pipe Locators
3.6.0 Electronic Pipe Locators
4.1.0 Permanent Markers
The new Construction
Liquid Pipeline Depth Requirements:

For residential and commercial areas are 36 inches of cover.
WARNING:
Proceed slowly and carefully when probing. An electrocution hazard from electrical lines may be present. To offset the risk, use only tools made of a nonconducting material (such as fiberglass) or tools equipped with insulated handles.

When pot-holing, individuals should proceed with caution until the pipeline is exposed. Any tool used should have insulated handles.
Locating an underground utility line with an electronic locator until typically requires that you follow the steps outlined below:

Step 1. Once in the field, review maps, alignment sheets, and as-builts.
Step 2. Look for indicators of foreign lines such as valves, valve box covers,
manhole covers, pedestals, junction boxes, or utility poles with
downward cables for viable clues of what might be underground.
Step 3. Use the passive modes in the receiver, if available, to sweep the area
for indications of signals on lines (50/60 Hz-Power, radio, cathodic
protection signal, CATV).
Step 4. Determine if induction, connection, or two person sweep method
is to be used.
Step 5. Always connect the transmitter when possible, because the signal will
be cleaner and will travel further.
Step 6. Set the transmitter controls.
Step 7. Use the locator receiver to locate and mark the target pipes or cables
Step 8. Verify the identification of the target.
Step 9. Determine the depth of the target.
Step 10. Notify concerned supervisors, planners, and work crews
of your finding.
3.6.0 Electrical Pipe Locators Continued..
3.6.1 Stick Locators
This class of lightweight, portable detectors, also referred to as metal detectors or ferromagnetic locators, are quick and easy to use in the file to locate a variety of underground items including:
Pipes
Deadmen
Anchors
Tanks
Survey Pins

3.6.2 Electromagnetic (Battery-Operated) Locators
Electromagnetic locators have become the standard tools for locating and tracing buried pipe and utility cables.
Techniques include direct connection, clamping, two-person sweep, and induction.

3.6.5 Using an Induction Set
Once you know the starting point for the target pipe or cable, you can perform line tracing by placing transmitter unit directly over and in line with the target. The transmitter and receiver should be at least 30 feet apart to prevent air coupling of the signal between transmitter and receiver. The stronger the transmitter signal, the further from its location you will be able to detect it.






Permanent markers are generally colored signs with large lettering that are legible to anyone in the vicinity.
Permanent line markers are installed and maintained as close as practical to the pipeline at all required crossing locations.

Dents & Gouges

Dents and gouges are usually caused by contract Gouges with excavation or moving equipment or by rocks too close to the pipe.

The presence of dents and gouges is a danger to the pipeline because they may have reduced the
wall thickness of the pipe, creating a week point, and because they concentrate stress forces at that point. The weakened condition of the pipe wall can be the source of future leaks.
10.0.0 Backfilling
10.0.0 Backfilling
The backfill is laid around the pipe in such a manner that it supports the pipe evenly, reducing stresses that may later cause the pipe damage. The bedding, side fill, and cover should provide a uniform, even blanket around the pipe.

When filling is completed, the surface should be restored as closely as possible to its original condition, including the replacement of topsoil.

10.3.2 Bedding
Bedding extends from the top of the stabilization layer, if present, to the bottom of the pipe. Some materials used include native soil, sand, stone, or concrete. Specifications commonly require 4 to 6 inches of bedding material.

10.3.3 Install Backfill
Install backfill may include any of the following:
Haunching, tamping, or filling to the spring line
Tamping or filling to the top of the pipe
Tamping or filling to some point above the pipe
6.0.0 Respond Appropriately to Fire/Explosion
6.1.0 Reaction
The safety of personnel is always top priority. Protection of property is always second.
If the fire is small or incipient (beginning) fire, personnel should use the available fire extinguishing equipment to control the situation.
6.3.0 Perform Emergency Shutdown
Each company has a standard operating procedure for such an action. (In case of a pump shutdown from low pressure, there may be some time to discuss the move with appropriate management if the line has enough flexibility to withstand the stress).
6.4.2 General Public
In case of a release of product, the atmosphere downwind must be tested repeatedly. A vapor cloud traveling toward a populated area requires that the people be warned and possibility evacuated to a safe area.
4.0.0 Recognize & React to Communications Failures
Failure of communications usually refers to a loss of contact between the control center supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system and remotely controlled operating components on the pipeline.
7.0.0 Recognize & React to Pipeline Damage
A sheen on the water that covers submerged pipelines could be an indication of valve damage. A frost ball or vapor cloud that is discovered along the right-of-way may indicate a pipeline release of highly volatile liquid (HVI). Pipelines in some areas have been shot by hunters accidentally or by other people intentionally. Vandalism is also a potential cause of damage.

On multiple pump station systems, the pump units must be shut down in the order of upstream units first and then downstream.
10.1.0 Notifications
The death of an employee requires notification of the NRC immediately and OSHA within a specified number of hours.
Aboveground Pipe Coating & Inspection
1.0.0 Introduction

2.0.0 Metal Substrates

3.0.0 Initial Preparation Before Coating application

4.0.0 Applying Coatings with a Brush

1.0.0 Introduction
As a result of the Clean Air Act and many other laws and regulation, manufacturers have stepped up research and development for both water-based and oil-based coatings. Coatings have been re-engineered to eliminate or reduce the use of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and lead. Today's coatings are quite different in their composition and performance than the best coatings of just a few years ago.
2.0.0 Respond & React to abnormal facility conditions
Abnormal facility conditions relate to problems involving the physical structure of the pipeline.

2.1.0 Respond to High Pump Case Temperature/Pressure Alarm

Main-Line pumps are fitted with RTDs that give temperature readings for the pump case and product temperature. The devices are preset to signal an alarm in the control center when the temperature reaches a critical level and will shut the pump down automatically if some action cannot be taken to lower the temperature.
Pumps also have high discharge pressure alarms that will shut down the pump when the discharge pressure exceeds a preset limit.
Another type of alarm that can be received from a pumping unit is a seal failure alarm.

3.0.0 Respond & React to activation of a safety device
3.1.0 Respond to the activation of a Pressure Relief System
Activation of relief devices along the pipeline system is an abnormal occurrence. API Standard 650 or API 2510 for pressure vessels. Relief valves can be installed on pipeline or pressure breakout tanks. The purpose of a relief valve is to protect the pipeline or pressure tank from overpressure. These tanks can also be used to temporarily absorb surge pressure from the main-line and manifold pressure relief valves to lower pressure on the line. An abnormal operating condition exists when a pressure relief occurs.

3.1.1 Reaction
A pressure reduction is usually achieved by shutting down the upstream pumping station, closing a block valve, or shutting down the pipeline system.
9.0.0 Recognize & React to unexpected Carbon Dioxide Encounter
9.1.0 Reaction
Of special concern until the atmosphere has been tested for carbon dioxide would be low-lying areas or lower rooms and compartments of buildings involved.
Liquid Pipeline General AOC
(Abnormal Operating Conditions)
2.0.0 Respond to Damage Pipeline Supports

3.1.0 Respond to Activation of a Pressure Relief System

4.0.0 Recognize & react to communications failures

6.0.0 Reaction

7.0.0 Recognize & react to pipeline damage

8.0.0 Recognize & react to unexpected/unintended release or encounter of hazardous liquid

9.1.0 Reaction

10.1.0 Notifications

2.1.0 Surface/Substrate Preparation Agents
Surface/Substrate preparation, the foundation of a good coating job, should always begin with washing away dust, dirt, water-soluble contaminates, oil, grease, and any other residue that may interfere with adhesion. Make every effort to clean the surface/substrate as well as possible before coating application, or before using other surface/substrate preparation methods.
2.1.1 Low-Pressure Washer Abrasives
Metallic abrasives are available in a variety of forms. The most common metallic abrasive is cast steel. Others include malleable iron and chilled cast iron. All come in the form of shot and grit and in different degrees and hardness.

Metallic abrasives can be recycled many times before breaking down into a size too small to be reused. The repeated blast cleaning impact causes the abrasive to fracture or flake. Generally, the harder the abrasive, the faster it breaks down.
2.2.2 Alkaline & Detergent Cleaning
As discussed previously, there are a number of powerful industrial alkaline sodium metasilicate-based cleaners with added detergent and surfactants available. These cleaners, in their concentrated spray-and-wipe forms, are strong enough to remove dried paint, oil, grease, wax, scuff marks, pencil marks, soot, rust stains, and other materials. They are also available in non-foaming versions for dilution and use in pressure washing equipment.

In general, these cleaners should not be allowed to dry on a surface. They should be wiped or rinsed off thoroughly with clean water while still wet, otherwise they may leave a film that is difficult to remove.

2.3.1 Pressurized Water Cleaning Equipment
Water cleaning is effective for removing both visible and non-visible contaminants. As the pressure of the water increases, so does the cleaning ability of the equipment, which falls into one of the four categories as defined in SSPC-SP12/NACE 5, Surface Preparation and Cleaning of Steel and Other Hand Materials by High- and Ultra High-Pressure Water Jetting Prior to the Re-coating:
Low-Pressure water Cleaning- Uses water pressures less than 5,000 psi.
High-pressure water Cleaning- Uses water pressures from 5,000 to 10,000 psi.
Low-Pressure water jetting- Uses water pressures from 10,000 to 25,000 psi.
Ultra High-Pressure water jetting- Uses water pressures greater than 25,000 psi.

2.3.3 Typical Low-Pressure, Cold Water Washer Equipment
Want Assembly- The want assembly controls the pressurized water fed to the nozzle-tip. It is equipped with a trigger guard and a trigger safety latch to prevent accidental discharge of the gun during handling or if the gun is dropped or bumped. Interchangeable wants of the various lengths, including telescoping wants, can be used.
2.3.6 Low-Pressure Washer Accessories
Wet abrasive blasting with abrasive injection into a water stream is distinguished from another form of wet abrasive blasting in which water is injected into an air and abrasive stream to cut down on dust. In either method, mixing water and abrasive has some drawbacks. Non-soluble wet abrasive cannot be recycled easily or economically. Soluble sodium bicarbonate abrasive provides a non-toxic, soft abrasive that requires little cleanup after the job is done.
2.3.13 Pressure Washer Flushing & Storage
Ice may damage the pump or heater, if so equipped. If the water freezes in the equipment, thaw it at room temperature before attempting to start it. Do not pour hot water on or into the pump; it may crack the pump or its components.
If the equipment may be exposed to freezing temperatures for a short period of time without being used, drain all the water out of the pump. heater (if equipped), hoses, guns, and want.
If the equipment will be stored overnight or longer in freezing temperatures, drain the water from the equipment, flush with a 50% solution of antifreeze, then drain again.
2.4.5 Chipping Hammers
A chipping hammer is used to chip away the loose rust, coating, and mill scale from steel surfaces. It may be the first tool used to remove such contaminants, followed by other tools, such as scrapers, non-woven abrasive and wire brushes.
2.5.1 Power Tools- General Information
There are three types of power tools used for surface preparation: Impact tools, rotary/vibrating tools, and rotary impact tools.

Impact tools, such as scaling hammers, needle guns, and power chisels, are used to clean steel. They can clean a surface by knocking off the contaminants, including heavy layers of rust, mill scale, thick paint or coating, weld flux, slag, and weld spatter.

Rotary/vibrating tools are also used on steel. They include sanders, wire brushes, and grinding wheels. They brush, grind, or send away loose rust, paint, loose mill scale, weld flux, and slag. They are also used to prepare welded surfaces.
3.2.0 Checking the Surface Conditions and Environmental Conditions
Surface temperature substrate can be measured with a thermometer in direct contract with the substrate. Air conditions can be checked using a sling psychrometer which contains two thermometers, one to measure the dry air temperature (dry bulb) and the other to measure the wet air temperature (wet bulb). The measured wet and dry bulb temperatures can be used to find the percent of relative humidity (RH) and dew point of the measured air.
3.3.0 Properly Selecting and Mixing the Coating
The quality of a finished spraying application depends on the quality of the coating, the equipment, and the operator. The coating should be selected based on how well it can protect a specific surface. It should be the type of coating recommended by the specifications and/or manufacturer for use on the surface to be protected. If applying multiple coats, such as a primer, intermediate, and/or final coat to the surface, all coatings should be compatible. Equally as important is the preparation of the coating before use. To ensure uniform application, follow the instructions on the product label and the application sheet to mix the paint and thin it, if necessary. It must be thoroughly mixed to achieve uniform color and consistency.
3.4.0 Brushes
All brushes consist of bristles, a heel, a ferrule, and a handle. The portion of the bristles nearest the ferrule is called the
butt end
; the lower part of the brush is its
heel;
and the tip of the brush is called the
flag
end.
4.4.1 Brushes
Clean brushes used in oil-based or specialty coating according to the following guidelines.

Step 1:
Use a rag to wipe off as much coating material as you can from the brush and ferrule.

Step 2:
Let the brush soak in a bucked of solvent for a few minutes. Next, use a brush or comb or wire brush to comb the flat sides and edges of the brush. Comb from the ferrule toward the end of the bristles, forcing the coating out. Repeat this process while dipping the brush into solvent to loosen any coating trapped inside the bristles near the ferrule.

Step 3:
Hold the brush upside down, and bend the bristles back and forth, forcing solvent into the upper heel and ferrule of the brush. Repeat this action several times while pouring solvent into the bristles. Note that dirty solvent can often be used for the early rinses but clean solvent must be used from the later rinses. Continue the process until clear solvent runs out of the brush.

Step 4:
Use the brush spinner to remove the solvent and try the brush. Make sure to hold the spinner inside a paint bucked or other suitable container while pumping it to prevent getting solvent on yourself, others, and the surrounding area.
4.4.2 Cleaning Rollers
Those used with water-based coatings are cleaned with soup and water.

Step 1:
Without removing the roller cover from the roller, use the semi-circular groove of the painter's tool or the edge of a putty knife to scrape the wet coating from the roller cover into the pan or five gallon pan.

Step 2:
Remove the roller cover form the roller and soak it in the solvent or water, as applicable. Use a curved painter's tool to scrape the cover again after it has been soaked.

Step 3:
Use a roller spinner to clean out as much solvent or water from the cover as possible. Make sure to hold the spinner inside a paint bucked or other suitable container while pumping it to prevent getting solvent on yourself, others, and the surrounding area.

Step 4:
Repeat steps 1-3 as necessary until the cover is clean

Step 5:
Stand the cover on end and allow it to dry thoroughly. Do not allow anything to lean against the cover as it dries.

Step 6:
Clean, rinse, and dry the roller, tray and other accessories.

Step 7:
Make sure to dispose of waste coating solvent, and/or waste water in accordance with all federal, state, and local laws and regulations.
3.5.1 Dip Rollers
Dip rollers are the most common type of roller. They are so named because the coating is supplied to the roller cover by dipping it into a roller tray or a five-gallon can.

The length of the roller cover fibers, called the
nap
, rangers from 1/2" to 1 1/2" long. The nap is important because it determines the kind of surfaces on which the cover can be used for its overall performance on those surfaces.
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