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Hans and Sophie Scoll
Transcript of Hans and Sophie Scoll
In 1942 Hans Scholl, a medical student at the University of Munich, his sister Sophie, a kindergarten teacher at the Fröbel Institute in Ulm-Söflingen , Christoph Probst, Willi Graf, and Alexander Schmorell founded the "White Rose" movement, one of the few German groups that spoke out against Nazi genocidal policies.
Hans and Sophie were raised in a household that actively showed dissent against fascism and the Nazi party. The father was arrested for referring to Hitler as "God’s Scourge." Although they both joined the Hitler Youth they eventually discovered that they wanted nothing to do with it and were able to leave. Their father had also told them that ”What I want for you is to live in uprightness and freedom of spirit, no matter how difficult that proves to be,” and using this advice they stood up and stood out.
When the mass deportation of Jews began in 1942, they realized it was time for action. They bought a typewriter and a duplicating machine and began printing and distributing anti-Nazi and anti-war leaflets denouncing the inhuman acts of the Nazis. Their first pamphlet stated. "Nothing is so unworthy of a nation as allowing itself to be governed without opposition by a clique that has yielded to base instinct…Western civilization must defend itself against fascism and offer passive resistance, before the nation’s last young man has given his blood on some battlefield."
In total six pamphlets were distributed four under the title "The White Rose" and two under the title "Leaflets of the Resistance." Copies began turning up in different parts of Germany and Austria. They wrote graffiti in the streets "Down with Hitler! . . . Hitler the Mass Murderer!” and “Freiheit! . . . Freiheit![Freedom! Freedom!]"Before the war ended in Europe, the final leaflet produced by the White Rose movement was smuggled out of Germany and handed to the advancing Allies. They printed millions of copies of it and dropped them all over the country.
February 18, 1943 while distributing leaflets in University of Munich they were seen by Jakob Schmidt, University handyman and Nazi party member, who reported them to the Gestapo , the German secret state police. On February 22, 1943 they were brought before the people's court.
On Feb 22, 1943, Sophie, Hans and Christoph were condemned to death by the ‘People’s’ Court and executed the same day. Hans Scholl’s last words shouted from the guillotine were, ”Long live freedom!” After months of Gestapo interrogations to obtain the names of his co-conspirators Willi Graf was executed. Alexander Schmorell was arrested in an air raid shelter and executed at Munich Stadelheim. Kurt Huber became one of the defendants at the trial of the People’s Court against the White Rose. Of its members Jurgen Wittenstein was the only one to survive.
Sophie Scholl held a firm Christian belief in God and in every human being's essential dignity. This formed her basis for resisting Nazi ideology. "A new commandment I give to you, that you love one another: just as I have loved you, you also are to love one another. By this all people will know that you are my disciples, if you have love for one another." - John 13:34-35
Marc Von Lüpke, Marc. "Sophie, Hans Scholl Remain Symbols of Resistance." DW 18 Feb. 2013: n. pag. Print.
Sarris, Andrew. "Newly Opened German Archives Reveal the Real Sophie Scholl." Observer 3 June 2006: n. pag. Print.
Scholl, Hans. Leaflets of the White Rose I. N.p.: n.p., n.d. Print.
"Hans and Sophie Scholl." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, n.d. Web. 04 May 2015.
"Many, perhaps most, of the readers of these leaflets do not see clearly how they can practice an effective opposition. They do not see any avenues open to them. We want to try to show them that everyone is in a position to contribute to the overthrow of the system." -Passive Resistance to National Socialism
White Rose Pamphlets
"Do not forget that every people deserves the regime they are willing to endure"
"After all an end in terror is preferable to terror without end"
"Our present 'state' is the dictatorship of evil."
"Every word that comes out of Hitler's mouth is a lie."
"The imperialist ideology of force must be shattered for all the time."
"White Rose Society | The Four Leaflets | HOME." White Rose Society | The Four Leaflets | HOME. N.p., n.d. Web. 04 May 2015.