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Metabolic Pathways

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by

Jennifer Hasting

on 1 July 2015

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Transcript of Metabolic Pathways

Metabolic Pathways
Hexosemonophosphate Shunt
Gluconeogenesis
Glycogenesis
Glycogenolysis
Mitochondria
Malate
Jennifer Hasting
Glycolysis
Glucose-6-phosphate
Fructose-6-phosphate
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate
DHAP
1,3-bisphosphoglycerate
3-phosphoglycerate
2-phosphoglycerate
G-3-P
PEP
Pyruvate
Lactate
Glucose phosphate isomerase
Fructose bisphosphate
aldolase
Phosphofructokinase
G-3-P dehydrogenase
Triosephosphate isomerase
Enolase
Phosphoglycerate mutase
Phosphoenolpyruvate kinase
Phosphoglycerate kinase
Phosphoglucomutase
Glucose-1-phosphate
ATP

ADP
ADP

ATP
ADP

ATP
NAD
+
NADH H NAD
+
+
+
+
+
+
Glucose-6-Phosphate
D-ribulose 5-phosphate
6-phosphogluconate
6-phosphoglucono-lactone
G-3-P
D-xylulose
5-phosphate
Fructose-6-Phosphate
D-ribose
5-phosphate
NADH
H
+
Oxidative Stage
Nonoxidative Stage
NADP
+
+
NADPH
H
+
NADP
+
NADPH
H
+
CO
2
Activated Fatty Acyl-
B-hydroxyacyl-
Unsaturated acyl-
Saturated -activated fatty acid

B-ketoacyl-
Palmitoyl-CoA
FAD
FADH
2
H O
2
NADH H NAD
+
+
+
+
Fatty Acid
Fatty Acyl-
Activation of a Fatty Acid
Acyl-CoA synthetase
ATP
AMP + PP
i
(Activated)
Fatty Acid Synthesis
Formation of Malonyl-CoA
Acetyl-
Malonyl-
Acetyl-CoA carboxylase
CO
2
ATP
(biotin)
Oxaloacetate
+
Citrate lyase
CO
2
ATP
P
ADP
i
+
Citrate
Acetyl- + Oxaloacetate
Citrate Synthetase
[Mitochondria]
Citrate
Movement of Acetyl-CoA to Cytosol
Acetyl-
Malonyl-
Malonyl
Acetyl
CE
ACP
CE
ACP
S
S
HS
HS
+
+
2 S-
+
"Loading" of sulfhydryl groups into the fatty acid synthase system
P
ADP
i
+
Elongation of Fatty Acid Chain
Cytosol
CO
2
CO
2
NADP
NADPH(H )
+
+
NADP
NADPH(H )
+
+
H O
2
Fatty Acid
CE
ACP
HS
S
[Occurs in many tissues]
Enoyl-
Acetyl-
(Pentose-phosphate Pathway)
Hexose phosphate isomerase
Epimerase
Phosphopentose isomerase
Pyruvate
Oxaloacetate
Fumarate
Succinate
Succinyl-CoA
a-ketoglutarate
Amino Acids
Pyruvate carboxylase
Malate dehydrogenase
Malate
Oxaloacetate
PEP
2PG
3PG
G3P
BPG
DHAP
FBP
F6P
G6P
Glucose
Glycerol
Pyruvate
kinase
Pyruvate
Lactate
PEP carboxykinase
Malate dehydrogenase
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase
Glucose-6-phosphatase
TCA Cycle
Pyruvate
CoASH
NAD
NADH
H
+
+
+
CO
2
PDC
Free Glucose
(a-D-glucose)
Glucose-6-P
Glucose-1-P
UDP-glucose
Glycogen
(unbranched)
Glycogen
(branched)
Cell Membrane
ATP
ADP
Phosphoglucomutase
UTP
PP
i
Glycogenin
Primer
Glycogen
synthase
Branching
enzyme
Hexokinase (in muscle)
Glucokinase (in liver)
Glycogenin
Glucosyl
transferase
nUDP-Glu
nUDP
Glu
Glu
Glu
Glu
Primer Function of Glycogenin
_
_
_
_
Acetyl-
Citrate
Isocitrate
a-Ketoglutarate
Succinyl-CoA
Succinate
Fumarate
Malate
Oxaloacetate
CoASH
CO
2
CO
2
NADH
NADH
NAD
NAD
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
NAD
NADH
FADH
FAD
H
H
H
2
H O
2
H O
2
Glycogen
Strand
Glucose-1-P
Glucose-6-P
Remaining glycogen strand
+
Glycogen phosphorylase [a(1-4)]
Glucose
Glucose-6-phosphatase
(In liver or kidney)
Phosphoglucomutase
(From muscle)
TCA Cycle Intermediates
Glucose
Glucosokinase/
Hexokinase
Lactate dehydrogenase
Lactate dehydrogenase
Acetyl-
B-Oxidation of Fatty Acid
Ornithine
Citrulline
Arginino-
succinate
Fumarate
Urea
Carbamoyl-PO
4
CO
2
NAG
NH
2ATP
3
2ADP
P
i
+
Arginine
Carbamoyl
phosphate synthetase
Ornithine
transcarbamoylase
Arginase
Argininosuccinase
Mg
2+
Alanine
Aspartate
Glutamate
ATP
AMP
i
+
PP
Pyruvate
a-keto-
glutarate
Oxaloacetate
Urea Cycle
Oxaloacetate
Fumarate
ATP
ADP
GTP
GDP
P
CO
2
Phe
Tyr
Asp

Ile
Leu
Lys
Thr
Trp

Arg
His
Pro
Glu
Gln

Val
Ile
Met
Thr

Asp
Asn

Ala Ser
Gly Cys
Trp Thr

Acetoacetate
B-hydroxybutyrate
Acetone
Acetoacetyl-CoA
Acetyl-
CoA
CoA
Ketone Body Formation
Phe
Leu
Tyr
Alanine
a-ketoglutarate
Glutamate
NH
3
Urea
Alanine
a-ketoglutarate
Glutamate
a-ketoisocaproate
Leucine
Pyruvate
Pyruvate
Glucose-Alanine Cycle

Fructose
Hexokinase
Fructose-1-P
Fructokinase
Galactose
Galactose-1-P
ATP

ADP
ATP
ADP
ATP
ADP
ATP
ADP
Pyruvate dehydrogenase
Citrate synthase
Aconitase
Isocitrate
dehydrogenase
a-Ketoglutarate
dehydrogenase
Succinyl-CoA synthetase
Nucleoside diphosphate
kinase
CoASH
Succinate dehydrogenase
Fumarase
Malate dehydrogenase
HPO
4
-2
TDP
TDP
PLP
PLP
PLP
PLP
Transketolase
Transaldolase
Transketolase
Gluconolactonase
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
CoA
Argininosuccinate
synthetase
[Mn]
Mg
2+
Pyruvate
PLP
PLP
PLP
PLP
PLP
PLP
PLP
[Muscle]
[Liver]
CoA
TDP
NADH
Mg
2+
CoA
TDP
NADH
Mg
2+
CoA
TDP
NADH
Mg
2+
Biotin
Biotin
CoA
Acetyl-
CoA
Acetyl-
CoA
Acetyl-
CoA
Acetyl-
CoA
(Before) Fatty Acid Synthesis
Fatty Acid
Glycogen
Glucose-1-P
Glucose-6-P
Glucose-6-P
Glucose-6-P
Fructose-6-P
Glucose
Oxaloacetate
Lactate
Glucogenic
MAP KEY
Light Pink
Thiamin
TDP
Green
Vit B
PLP
Yellow
Riboflavin
FADH
2
6
Blue
Biotin
Brown
Mg
2+
Mn
and
Transketolase
CoA
White
Pantothenic acid
Pink
Niacin
NADH
Acetyl-
CoA
Color
Micronutrient
Coenzyme or
Enzyme

Path links
Pathway reactions
Enzymes
Red font
Primary metabolites
Light Blue font
Amino Acids
Purple italics
Other Features
Mg
2+
Mg
2+
Debranching enzyme [a(1-6)]
Mg
2+
Mg
2+
Glucose-6-P dehydrogenase
6-Phosphogluconate dehydrogenase
Repeated sequence
Acyl-CoA
dehydrogenase
Enoyl-CoA
hydratase
B-hydroxyacyl-CoA
dehydrogenase
Acetyltransferase
Full transcript