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Observational Techniques for Collecting Action Research Data

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by

Andrea Rodriguez

on 16 March 2014

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Transcript of Observational Techniques for Collecting Action Research Data

Data Collection
Methods
Observational
Action Research
Objective:

To investigate practice critically.
To work towards changing it
Observational Techniques for Collecting Action Research Data
Non-observational
Data that are essentialy introspective.
Encourage respondents to 'self-report' their perspectives on the phenomena of investigation
Roles
Participant
Non-participant

*Collaborative Action Research
Data
Collection Techniques
Nunan 1989: Qualitative in nature
No need to make statistically generalisable conclusions.
Exploratory & interpretive methods
Interviews & Discussions
Questionnaires
& surveys
Life/career
histories
Documents
Notes
Diaries & Journals
Recordings
Transcripts
Diagrams
Systematic, intentional and theoretical recording, and analysis of the results of our observation for the purpose of research.
Conscious notice of CR issues.
Gathering info to answer research questions
Observation
1. Focus for the observation.
2. Specific physical location.
3. Group to be observed.
4. Record complete events ASAP = holistic picture.
5. Be objective and precise.
6. System for recording.


Notes and Diaries
Documenting & analysing issues.
Finding a clearer focus for the
research.

Jottings.
Stream-of-behaviour records.
Notes
Descriptions, reflections,
analysis and accounts of
events
Non-verbal info
Physical settings
Group structures
Interactions
Oral Notes
Teacher diaries
or journals
More subjective and personal relations
Reflect on the research
Intimate Journal
Memoir
Log
Set of personal notes
Rich in sentiments and confessions
Entries at regular intervals
Impersonal
More objective
Account record.
Lists of contacts
Phone calls
Meetings
Attendance
Proformas
To separate descriptive from reflective aspects
Grid
Audio and Video Recording
To capture in detail naturalistic interactions
Accurate information
General or Specific impressions of a classroom
Identification of possible causes of problems
Identification of factors that promote learning
"Successful observation requires something
more than just sitting and watching."
(Lynch, 1996, p. 108)

1. "Seeing is believing" / "Believing is seeing"
2. Have you ever seen something that turned
out not to be what you thought?

Observation is not always a reliable source of
information.
Open
You know what you are looking
for
Closed
You aren’t sure what exactly
you are looking for
References
Griffee, D. T. (2012)

Data from Observation
. In An Introduction to Second Language Research Methods (p. 177-198).
California: TESL-EJ Publications. http://www.tesl-ej.org/pdf/ej60/sl_research_methods.pdf
Burns, A. (1999) Observational Techniques for Collecting Action Research Data.
In Collaborative Action Research for Enlgish Language Teachers
(p. 78-116). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Advantages
-You can focus on teaching while your data is being collected.
-Linguistic details.
-Statistic data
Transcription
Disadvantages
-Intrusive
-No body language or other contextual features
-Requires transcpription = time
-Limited recording range

Advantages
-Can reveal things we might not
otherwise notice
-Naturalistic view of life in a classroom
Disadvantages
-Intrusive
-Ethical considerations
-Transcription
- Scan particular classroom episodes
- Basis for more in-depth analysis
- Time-consuming
- Coding conventions
Photographs
- personalising the subjects
-communicating complex messages
-reference points for interviews
-illustrating teaching techniques
-Permission.
Diagrams
How learning situations are socially structured.
- physical context
-teacher's movements
- use of materials
-furniture
-seating arrangements
Full transcript