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Group Roles Including Leadership
Transcript of Group Roles Including Leadership
-provided to team members, usually when the project begins
-as project begins, individual's talents and preferences guide them towards certain tasks
-chosen by the individual team member
The method of task division should be confirmed up-front to ensure group harmony
Blau also thoerized that in an interaction between two people, the power of one (Person A) over the other (Person B) is a function of the dependence of B on A.
Power is created based on inter-relational factors. “I have something you want, therefore I have power over you.”
3 Elements of Personality Structure
Group roles are clusters of related and goal-directed behaviors exhibited by a person in a situational context.
Group roles help us understand how people contribute to teams.
It is useful to think of roles in terms of actors playing parts within a larger drama. The best actors can play a range of roles.
Future Role Behavior is a Function of Realized Past Benefits
Homans' Social Exchange Theory takes a psychological approach to describing group dynamics and is founded on 5 Key Propositions:
Our Environment Influences Our Behavior
Are the Way Work
Gets Done in Groups
Benne and Sheats provides one of the earliest and most pervasive role frameworks. The basic organizing structure includes:
Task roles - Behaviors related to the facilitation and coordination of group problem-solving activity.
Group Building roles - Behaviors that build and maintain group-centered attitudes and orientation. (also called social roles)
"Individual" roles - Behaviors that attempt to satisfy individual-centered needs that are irrelevant and/or destructive to group task.
Boundary Spanning roles - Later reseach focused on the group roles required to connect the team with external parties.
In 2008, a team of academic researchers consolidated 8 prominant role systems and their 120 different roles into a single framework of 10 roles:
Lewin's Field Theory tells us that people and groups operate as open systems; the intra and extra-group environment influences us and the roles we play.
As the environment changes it can influence the individual and the group.
People introduced into a functioning group will have an impact on existing group roles:
Team "Immigrants" - People who are introduced into teams voluntarily
Team "Captives" - People who are assigned to to a team, often despite their interests
and Accountability are Different Ideas
One review of academic literature identified 65 classification systems of leadership behavior between 1940 and 1986.
Most classifications separated leadership behaviors into 2 categories:
Those dealing with task accomplishment
Those facilitating team interaction and/or development
Groups may operate with various degrees of diffusion of "leadership" functions among group members or of concentration of such functions in one member.
The effectiveness of leaders is a matter of leader-member relationships.
Sources: What Type of Leadership Behaviors are Functional in Teams?, Burke, et al, 2006; Functional Roles of Group Members, Benne and Sheats, 1948
Source: Reflections on Field Theory, Parlett, 1991
Group Structure and Individual Life Experiences Impact Group Behaviors and Roles
Key Theory Contributors: Robet F. Bales, Eric Berne, George Homans, Peter Blau
Group Dynamics are Influenced by Group Structure
Future Role Behavior is a Function of Percieved Future Benefits
(i.e. What am I to gain by doing "X"?)
The more often a specific behavior is rewarded, the more likely the behavior will be repeated.
Rewarded behavior in certain environments is likely to be repeated in a similar environment.
The greater the previous reward for a specific behavior, the greater the possibility of that behavior being repeated.
"Deprivation-Satiation" - The more a reward is given, the less value the person places on the reward.
"Positive/Negative Reactions Proposition"
1 - Those who do not receive what they anticipate become angry
2 - Those who receive more than they anticipate will be satisfied and happy.
What is the Influence of Psychology on Behavior & Roles?
Conformity Influences Behavior
Beliefs & Attitudes Influence Behaviors
So what happens when one's belief conflicts with another belief or behavior?
This discomfort may cause a person to change their behavior or their beliefs to get to a state of consistancy & psychological comfort.
Blau's Social Exchange Theory takes an economic approach to describing group dynamics:
Source: The Team Role Test, Mumford et al., 2008, Journal of Applied Psychology
Group Roles path outline:
Group dynamics and group system theory
What are team roles? Role behavior framework, leadership, scapegoat
The theories that help explain the roles a person will play in a group
Summary - Roles are ever changing
Influences Hint at Role
Behaviors but aren't
Source: Gender and Leadership: A Meta Analysis, Eagly, 1990
Psychoanalytic Theory : Unconscious Forces and Free Will
Psychoanalytic theorists, namely Freud and Bion, believe an individuals' behavior and how he/she impacts a group is driven by unconscious forces/"baggage" starting from birth until death. Given this, they do not believe in free will.
Instinct driven, avoids pain and seeks pleasure
Reality driven, balances the other two elements
Morality driven by social convictions rather than instinct
Critics of Psychoanalytic Theory
Emphasizes importance of childhood experiences and unconscious drives
Explains defense mechanisms and why individuals react differently to similar situations
Helps group members be more empathic
Freud did not include environmental impacts
Lacking empirical data and consideration of cultural impact
Given these limitations, modern research does not support many of its notions
Group Dynamics Explains Group Behaviors
System of behaviors and processes occurring within or between social groups
Useful in understanding
Group decision making
Impacts of new ideas and technology on groups
Core of understanding social prejudice and discrimination
Intragroup dynamics-within a group
Intergroup dynamics-between groups
Conflict Impacts Group Dynamics
Bion's work provides the following insights into group dynamics:
-need for group leadership, can result in conflict, for example a need to replace the leader
need for self preservation, an example is a person taking steps to defend his/her job
-purpose is to create something new
Changing the elements of these creates group conflict and resistance.
Watch this video to see how environmental context has powerful behavioral influence
Creating Role Harmony Through Empathy
Ego develops in a person from birth until death (consciously and unconsciously) and seeks to understand the "baggage" each individual brings to a group
The Ego neutralizes the Id and Superego while creating harmonious balance in a group setting. It helps each group member be more empathic.
Power is Derived from Dependancy
Researchers found that unique results are obtained when a system is formed by creating dependency among formerly independent people.
Groups are complex, adaptive, dynamic systems of interacting individuals. The members are the units of the system, who are coupled one to another by relationships.
Achieving Effective Communication within Groups
No Group Task is Too Complex Given the Right Input
Berne theorized that Individuals interact with others in three main "States"...
Ex-Google CEO Eric Schmit is talking about open systems and how he runs meetings to create better ideas.
Transactional Analysis Theory summarizes that communications between individuals must be “complementary” - meaning the response should echo the path of the stimulus - in order to be effective.
Source: Get the Whole System in the Room by Marvin Weisbord & Sandra Janoff (2007)
For Example: If Sally speaks to Billy in a dictatorial manner (Parent to Child Ego State), then Billy must respond from the "Child Ego State" in order for the communication to be effective.
Conflict Can Emerge
from Role Behaviors
In academic studies, women scored significantly higher in overall group role knowledge which was also positively related to group role performance. Differences were NOT significantly different when tested in work settings.
There is evidence that women tend toward a more democratic or participative style of leadership compared to men's tendency toward autocratic or transactional leadership. These differences may or may not show up when leading in an organization.
Stereotypical Gender Roles Are Difficult to Prove
Accent and language fluency challenges may sideline those who could otherwise make effective role contributions.
Differences in direct versus indirect communication can impact role behavior in groups.
Attitudes toward hierarchy, authority, and status can surpress or enable a person's willingness to play certain roles.
Cultural Norms &
Can Impact Role Behavior
Source: The Team Role Test, Mumford et al., 2008, Journal of Applied Psychology
Source: Managing Multicultural Teams,
Harvard Business Review, Nov 2006
Role-based conflict can occur when there is inconsistency between role behaviors and role expectations.
Destructive "individual" role behavior can create group conflict.
Internal competition to play certain roles can be a form of conflict.
"Social loafing", which occurs when individuals don't play productive roles in groups, can lead to conflict.
Source: The Team Role Test, Mumford, Troy, et al., Journal of Applied Psychology, 2008
This theory identifies methods and strategies for attaining effective communication styles within groups. While all three ego states can obtain results, the Integrating Adult ego state is the most sustainable communication style. This ego state is similar to communicating as your "Wise Self."
Scapegoating may be conducted by individuals against individuals; individuals against groups; groups against individuals, and groups against groups.
Scapegoat Role: A Person Singled Out for Unmerited Blame or Negative Treatment
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
A practical way to think about a "whole system" for any meeting is to suggest how to match the people to a task and identify 5 essential practices for improving whole systems. Since first proposed, the "whole system in the room"principle used as a key to fast action in 21st century organizations.
Roles are flexible. Each person will play any number of roles in a group's lifecycle.
Both personal and environmental factors influence the roles we play.
Leadership is a set of behaviors that drive the group forward.
What influences the roles a person will play?
Assembled by Pi Prime's
For more complete information on these subjects, please visit our document titled "
613 - Group Roles, Including Leadership, Resources
" in Sakai for a set of references.
Groups are Systems of Interacting Individuals
Group System Model
Bales developed a model for capturing and quantifying social behaviors within groups to enable analysis of the interaction. He called it Social Exchange Theory.
Doing so allowed easy comparison of group dynamics between groups of different structures. (i.e. formal hierarchy vs. peer group)
So What?... Individuals in groups have more power when the group is more dependent on their contributions.
Solomon Asch Experiment:
People conform because:
They want to fit in with the group. (Normative Influence)
They believe the group is better informed than they are. (Informational influence.)
This causes psychological discomfort
: A Multilevel View of Intragroup Conflict, Journal of Management (2008)
For Example: An individual that values deferance to authority is asked to play the "critic" group role.
Task Roles and Group Harmony
Three Types of Conflict