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A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War (1861-1865)
Transcript of A New Birth of Freedom: The Civil War (1861-1865)
The Civil War (1861-1865)
The Two Sides...
Manufacturing, railroads, financial resources
To win-invade and conquer (on the offensive)
In the end, 2 million men served
Farm boys, shopkeepers, artisans, and urban workers
Population-9 million (3.3 million slaves)
Highly motivated-defending land, families, and way of life
In the end, 900,000 men served
Non-slaveowning small farmers
Discuss how technology had transformed warfare by the time of the Civil War.
War correspondents and newspapers brought the realities of the war to the people...
Weaken the North
Make the North want to abandon the conflict and recognize the Confederacy
Officers not prepared
Narrow focus-capture Richmond, VA
Capture and occupy territory (small steps)
Target slavery, the "cornerstone" of the Confederacy
(July) Battle of Bull Run
Battle of Bull Run
July 21st, 1861
Union retreated and both sides realized the war would not be quick
McClellan takes command of the Union forces
Important People of the Civil War
Months of military inactivity
Republican leaders, members of Congress urge McClellan to take action
(June) Seven Days' Campaign
(Aug/Sept) Second Battle of Bull Run
General Lee launches invasion of the North
(Sept) Battle of Antietam
(December) Confederate army defeats the Union at Fredericksburg, VA
(February) Grant wins first significant victory for the Union
Lincoln issues Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation
(January 1) Lincoln signs the Emancipation Proclamation
(November 1863) Lincoln and the Gettysburg Address
(April) Confederate army repelled Union attack at Chancellorsville, VA
(July) Battle of Gettysburg, PA
After "Pickett's Charge," Confederate army would never again set foot on northern soil
(July) Battle of Vicksburg, MS
Union gained control of the entire Mississippi Valley; southern morale at all time low
Grant begins "war of attrition" against Lee's army in Virginia (willing to accept high losses because North could replace the losses but the South could not)
Bloodiest fighting of the war
Grant lost 60,000 men, but continued to press forward in a turning point of modern warfare
Union morale reached an all time low
Lincoln reelected as President
"Rehearsals for Reconstruction"
(November) Sherman and his "March to the Sea"
(January 31st) 13th Amendment-Abolished slavery in the Union
(April) Confederate army abandons Richmond and Union soldiers occupied the southern capital
(April 9th) Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House, VA
(April 11th) President Lincoln assassinated by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C.
Battle of Antietam
September 17th, 1862
The bloodiest single day in American military history ended in a draw, but the Confederate retreat gave Abraham Lincoln the “victory” he desired before issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.
Battle of Gettysburg
July 1st-3rd, 1863
Fierce hand to hand combat ended with a Confederate retreat. The tide of the war turned in favor of the Union. The Confederate army would never again set foot on northern soil.
Battle of Vicksburg
July 3rd, 1863
Confederate army surrendered Vicksburg and the entire Mississippi Valley was in Union hands. Southern morale reached an all-time low.
Sherman's March to the Sea
Atlanta and across Georgia
Union troops moved across Georgia, destroying railroads, buildings, food, and supplies. The goal was to destroy materials and Southern pride, ensuring they no longer had a will to fight.
Read up to "Since the day I was born, I never saw such misery."
How does Andersonville prison reflect the overall atmosphere of the Confederacy and the Civil War as a whole as it neared its end in 1864-1865?
Gen. George McClellan
Well liked, but failed to attack Confederacy with full force
(1862) Removed from power
Gen. Ambrose Burnside
Like McClellan, failed to take advantage of Confederate weaknesses
Gen. Ulysses S. Grant
(1864) Commander in Chief
(1865) Accepted Lee's surrender
Began leadership in the west
William Tecumseh Sherman
Key to Victory: Completely destroy the South, economically and morally
March to the Sea: Total destruction of the South
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Defender of Richmond
Victory at Fredericksburg
(1862) Wounded by friendly fire and died
Robert E. Lee
Brilliant military strategist
Offered Union commander position, but said he could not fight against his people (Virginia)
Early victories, but surrendered at Appomattox Court House
(February) Confederacy is formed
(April) Fort Sumter
-Bloodiest single day in American military history
"The First Modern War"
More deadly rifles
Death toll of the Civil War nearly equals the total number of Americans who died in all of the nation's other wars
"The struggle of today is not altogether for today-it is for a vast future also."
"My paramount objective in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing all the slaves, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that..."
Union would have to take risks and experience losses in order to win
General Lee was quoted as saying he had lost his "right arm?
Technically a tie (Lincoln viewed as victory enough to issue Emancipation Proclamation)
Reality check for the Union-the Confederacy would not go down without a fight
After the war there was talk of putting Lee on trial for treason. Grant wrote, "I will resign the command of the army rather than execute any order to arrest Lee." That settled the matter, and Lee was never tried.
Assassination of Abraham Lincoln
April 11th, 1865
The assassination of four top officials would throw the North and the Republican Party into chaos long enough for the Confederacy to reassemble itself.
Union "victory" led to Emancipation Proclamation
Union on the offensive from this point on
Union controlled the Mississippi; Confederacy split in two
Physically, emotionally destroyed the South