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transformation from an AGRICULTURAL to an INDUSTRIAL, mass product, mass consumption, economy, automobile industry
Stimulation of demand (low price,advertisement, ) The 1970s-1990s = flexible system of production" (FSP)/ the "Japanese management system.
slower growth, increasing income inequality,
dramatic reductions in information costs and overheads, TQM, JIT inventory control, leaderless work groups
consumption side, globalization of consumer goods markets, faster product life cycles, and far greater product/market segmentation and differentiation. "Twice in the auto industry has changed our most fundamental ideas about how we make things. And how we make things dictates not only how we work but what we buy, how we think, and the way we live." Womack, Jones, and Roos (1990) craft production to mass production create the market, based on Eco of scale scope
rise to giant organisations, functional specialization
division on labour
spreading fixed expenses, investment, production line, reduce unit costs
div overheads: reporting, accounting, purchasing, quality
From single product to several products
Engendering public policies, institutions, governance mechanisms
Process engineering - Standardization - strd components, process, product
ASSEMBLY LINE - repetitive task Ford's Model-T Plant at Highland Park, Michigan, in 1914, increasing labor productivity tenfold and permitting stunning price cuts -- from $780 in 1910 to $360 in 1914 the term Fordize: "to standardize a product and manufacture it by mass means at a price so low that the common man can afford to buy it." Ford's system in his definition of socialism: "Soviets plus Prussian railway administration plus American industrial organization" (Hughes, 1989:474). Development of production
Fashion in culture (clothes, newspaper, fashion dolls, plates..), style, fashion knowledge, pursuit of luxury 1982
Relation of exchange
Dvpm of Distribution
Dvmp of Contribution McKendrick (1982)
"Rise of fashion across the domains." Economical CC
Geographical (regions, countries, colonies..)
Class CC (Hierarchical identity)
Different CC by gender
CC of Crown TREATMANN : "More than choice, affluence and shopping arcades, it was the need to rationalize scarce resource in war-time or to boost demand to overcame economic depression that made states identify consumers as a core target of public policy"(2006) page 85 TAYLORISM Production efficiency methodology breaks every action, job, or task into small and simple segments easily analyzed and taught.
T aims to achieve maximum job fragmentation to minimize skill requirements and job learning time for optimum job performance, cost accounting, tool and work station design etc. Frederick Winslow Taylor (1856-1915) who in his 1911 book 'Principles Of Scientific Management' T emphasized gaining maximum efficiency from both machine and worker, and maximization of profit for the benefit of both workers and management. Production POST FORDISM - flexibilism Small-batch production
Economies of scope
Specialized products and jobs
New information technologies
Emphasis on types of consumers in contrast to previous emphasis on social class
The rise of the service and the white-collar worker
The feminization of the work force RESSOUCES: Katarína Marešová
Petra Krumpholcová The third great transition in the history of humanity (after the Neolithic Revolution, the result of the development of agriculture around 6,000 B.C and the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century) is known variously as
“the information technology revolution”, “the third wave”,
“the third revolution”,
“the information society”
and “the automation revolution”.
It is especially characterized by changes in the world of work provided by a significant development in micro-electronics, automation, production organization, biochemistry and biotechnology. It is a world phenomenon thus it involves the globalization process. INTRODUCTION Fordism x Post-Fordism Market
Cultura system Mass consumption Standardised goods,
Mass assembly line,
Large, vertically integrated corporations
General or industrial unions,
Keynesian welfare state
Standardised, emphasis on quantity Fragmented niche markets, Gen. flexible between product lines,
Short-run, batch production,
Networks of smaller firms,
No unions or company unionism,
Differentiated, emphasis on quality Consumer culture is a strong association between people and material goods and services The text of Consumer Culture explores the nature and role of consumption in modern societies. Celia Lury's up-to-date revision of the successful classic establishes the importance of new object-based studies for consumer culture, and incorporates chapters on branding and the rise of ethical consumption.
Using contemporary illustrations, Lury examines the emergence of consumer culture and the changing relations between the production and consumption of cultural goods. She argues that consumer culture has become increasingly stylized and now provides an important context for everyday creativity.
Consumer Culture explores the way in which the position of individuals within social groups and their position in social groups structured by class, gender, race, and age affects the nature of their participation in consumer culture. About the text Unskilled workers
Semi skilled workers
Multi skilled workers
lower middle class
new bourgeois (less hierarchical) Contemporary events Richard and Maurice McDonald; 1940 first barbecue restaurant
Godzilla (1954) EVOLUTION:
Steel, automotive and electricity x petroleum, petrochemical, electrical, optics, aeronautics, space, electronics ...
45s baby boom - new demography till 1960 , Japan 48 pol. limitation of birth
from internal market to lowering trade barriers (GATT ), formation of free trade areas the EEC or other regional org. (ASEAN, NAFTA). State controls taxation, budget, money, credit ;nationalized sectors such as energy, transport; investments and stimulation the eco through its orders, including military. In 1970, public demand in the United States accounts for 88% of sales and 64% of aerospace electronics industries.
Probabilistic theories, possible mutations contradictory elements, more synthetic approach, scientific approach, analytical. 2 and 3% of their national income on research and development. Created public bodies, US (NASA), space weapons, biotechnology, microelectronics
THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION : Revolution in the production;Transport revolution; Impact on the economy
THE ECONOMIC TRANSFORMATION: Change sectors: AGRICULTURE mechanization, motorization, chemistry, genetics, animal vegetable section, food, product valuations,peasants debs; INDUSTRY old began to decline (textiles, coal, steel, shipbuilding), other industries such as consumer goods rose sharply (food, appliances, cars)(nuclear, aerospace, electronics).URBAN CHARACTER, THIRD SECTOR ACTIVITY
THE STRENGTHENING OF CAPITALIST STRUCTURE:technology, investments, companies, JAP conglomerations
MASS CONSUMPTION: ’"American way of life"
THE SOCIAL CONSEQUENCES : Mutations socioprofessional: ARGI- active population, III sector,months salaries
THE LIMITS OF SOCIAL PROGRESS:The neo-liberal society, the result of all these changes has not reduced the contrary, social inequalities. Indeed, the gap between rich and poor has not filled. In most northern countries, the richest 10% own more than 50% of national wealth. Poverty exists in rich countries and is synonymous with marginalization or exclusion. Those left behind in the neo-liberal society are not only immigrants, racial minorities in general, workers declining industries but also young people without qualifications. Pockets of poverty X new poor / underclass. Critic: Working Class Frederick Taylor directs criticis the deskilling of assembly line workers, likening Fords assemblers to trained Gorillas. Gramsci:"replacing in the worker the old psycho-physical nexus of qualitified professional work, which demanded active participation, intelligence, fantasy and initiative, with automatic and mechanical attitudes. skilled or unskilled, manufacturing, mining, construction, mechanical, maintenance, technical installation and many other types of physical work. work in office environment and may involve sitting at a computer or desk. A third type of work is a service worker (pink collar) whose labor is related to customer interaction, entertainment, sales or other service oriented work.
Many occupations blend blue, white and/or pink (service) industry categorizations. White-collar Blue-collar Working class Class Taste & Fashion Blackberry
Elle Services expansion, adherence to bureaucratized rules, occupation in the media, design, fashion 1) CONSUMER CHOICE and its consequences
neotribalism A "consumer culture" is one whose economy is defined by the buying and spending of consumers. Consumer culture is closely to tied capitalism, because it is driven by money. What distinguishes it, though, is that it is not focused so much on the power of money as it is on the happiness that can be attained through buying and owning personal property.
HistoryThe United States is the most obvious example of a consumer culture, but ancient Egypt and ancient Rome could also be considered consumerist societies. Consumerism is usually identified with wealthy countries. When the Industrial Revolution made mass consumption possible, consumerism came to be seen as an effective political option to sustain a healthy, balanced economy.
A consumer culture can be viewed both positively and negatively. Proponents say that people are happier and more productive when their wants and needs are met, and that buying and owning things is a means to that end. The opposing viewpoint is that consumerism is wasteful and greedy and encourages consumption for its own sake. Both sides agree that consumerism is a sign of economic freedom. Much of the way we define the "American Dream" is directly tied to America's consumer culture. Consumer Culture By Celia Lury
Abernathy, William (1978) The Productivity Dilemma: Roadblock to Innovation in the Automobile Industry. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Aglietta, Michal. (1976) A Theory of Capitalist Regulation: The US Experience. London, New Left Books, 1979. Translated from the French by David Fernbach. Youtube.com
wikiupedia THANK YOU
for the attention. 3 theories:- Beck, Giddens, Bauman
"People defines themselves through the goods and practices that they possess and display." 1) Beck"The individual himself or herself becomes the reproduction unit for the social in the life-hood."
2) Giddens"Life-style can be defined as a more or less integrated set of practices which an individual embraces, not only because such practices fulfil utilitarian needs, but because they give material form to a particular narrative of self-identity."
3) Bauman"Markets offer freedom but thereby entail that people acquire responsibilities for the creation of self
and this can produce uncertainity." Neotribalism
Marilynne Robinson: The Threat of Neotribalism
Neotribalism is a cultural trend toward fragmentation and tribalism away from civil discourse. NEOTRIBALISM Lifestyle is the typical way of life of an individual, group, or culture. The term was originally used by Austrian psychologist Alfred Adler (1870-1937). The term 'lifestyle' was introduced in the 1950s as a derivative of that of style in modernist art.
A lifestyle typically reflects an individual's attitudes, values or world view. Therefore, a lifestyle is a means of forging a sense of self and to create cultural symbols that resonate with personal identity. Not all aspects of a lifestyle are voluntary. Surrounding social and technical systems can constrain the lifestyle choices available to the individual and the symbols she/he is able to project to others and the self.
The lines between personal identity and the everyday doings that signal a particular lifestyle become blurred in modern society. For example, "green lifestyle" means holding beliefs and engaging in activities that consume fewer resources and produce less harmful waste (i.e. a smaller carbon footprint), and deriving a sense of self from holding these beliefs and engaging in these activities. Some commentators argue that, in modernity, the cornerstone of lifestyle construction is consumption behavior, which offers the possibility to create and further individualize the self with different products or services that signal different ways of life.
Lifestyle may include views on politics, religion, health, intimacy, and more. All of these aspects play a role in shaping someone's lifestyle. In the magazine and television industries, "lifestyle" is used to describe a category of publications or programs. Life-Style