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Copy of Immune System
Transcript of Copy of Immune System
Jensen The Immune System What is the Immune System and How Does it Work? The immune system is our body's way of keeping harmful and even deadly bacteria from reproducing and killing us. There are three levels of defense for the immune system: prevention and removal, non-specific bacteria slaying, and acquired immunity. Natural, Acquired, and Temporary immunities. Natural Immunity: A usually inherent, non specific form of immunity to a specific disease. Some kinds of natural immunities are, Individual immunity, Racial immunity, and specific immunity.
Acquired Immunity: Obtained from the development of anti bodies in exposure to an antigen.
A form of acquired immunity, that is not permanent. White Blood Cells White blood cells, scientifically called leukocytes, are used to fight diseases in the Immune System. They are found everywhere, including in the blood. There are five types of white blood cells. We'll start with the Neutrophil. The Neutrophil deals with fungus or other bacterial infections. Eosinophil deals with parasitic infections. Basophil deals with allergies. Lymphocyte kills cells lacking MHC (Major Histocombatability Complex) molecule. Cells that are healthy have MHC on their surface. Cells lacking MHC are destroyed. Cells lacking MHC can be cancer. And finally Monocyte are basically Neutrophil but are much longer-lasting. Immune system failures response to "harmful" invaders
IgE antibodies target invaders abnormal
body tissue. First: Prevention and removal This is the first layer of defense for our immune system. This includes our skin, nose, mouth, and even stomach! Skin defends the inside organs from outer dangers, such as germs, bacteria, and damage. Our nose has mucus (produces in Mucous Glands) in it, which contains acids in it that destroy the bacteria. Then small hairs in our nose push out any bacteria that managed to survive the snot. If they manage to get into your mouth, your saliva kills them off. Your stomach has non-harmful bacteria that kills bad bacteria that somehow gets into your stomach. This is just our walls, though. Second: non-specific destroying Bacteria that somehow manages to enter the body encounter large amounts of resistance. Standing armies of phagocytes and natural killer cells await them. Phagocytes are cells containing pouches called "Phagosomes" which contain chemicals and elements deadly to bacteria. Natural Killer Cells also await them, and they have a awesome name. Anyway, N.K.C. target and destroy abnormal cells by... well, you better see the video. Acquired Immunity is the final step to killing off bacteria. It takes longer than the Innate Immune System because it must have encountered the virus before it can destroy it. It must learn the wily ways of the bacteria so it may completely and utterly annihilate it.
Dendritic Cells in the innate system eat up bacteria and then send information about that bacteria to the spleen and other areas. Antigens ID a bacteria and then create a antibody against it. Antibodies aren't cells, they're highly specialized proteins that help lay the smack down on bacteria. Antibodies attach themselves to the bacteria, signaling for it's death. Lymphocytes then converge on the marked bacteria and engulf it. T cells and B cells are two different kinds of Lymphocytes. They don't reproduce like regular cells. T cells are made in the thymus and the B cells are made in the bone marrow constantly and then released out into the blood stream.
There are two different kinds of Acquired Immunity: Cell-mediated response, which is when the cell is already infected and the Humoral Response, which kills the bacteria itself when in the blood stream. First let's look at the cell-mediated response. This process mainly involves T-cells and there are quite a lot of them. Helper T-cells have a cute-sounding name but they call the shots for the entire operation. While they can't kill bacteria themselves they direct and operate the cells that can. Helper T-cells get their information from other cells that are out killing bacteria. Cells shred up the proteins from a invader and then put a bit of that antigen onto it's surface. Helper T-cells see when this is happening and go over and the two cells "talk". The cells that just killed it says "Hey, there was this guy over here and I ate him. Then I shred his proteins and stuck it on my cell membrane." The Helper T-cell gives it a look and then releases a chemical warning to all cells in the area that there might be a invasion.
The Helper turns into mainly two different kinds of T-cells: Effector T-cells, which run around the blood stream warning bacteria-fighter cells about the invasion. Most of the rest of them become Memory T-cells, which remember the protein and store the information for future use when that bacteria comes back.
Now it's time for the saddest tale of the cell-mediated response. If a cell is so infected that it knows it's a goner and that it knows it's being turned into a happy, healthy part of the body into a virus making factory pumping out deadly viruses, forced to help destroy everything it loves, with its last bit of strength it presents antigens, not asking to be rescued but instead asking to be given a quick, painless death. The Cytotoxic T-cell is given the responsibility of fulfilling this request. When it gets to the infected cell, it binds to it and releases enzymes that destroy the cell's membrane and that breaks down the whole cell.
Now it's time for the Humoral Response (yup, not done yet!). The primary players in this response is B-cells. They patrol your blood stream like cops driving down the road. Until, that is, they get a signal from a Helper T-cell. B-cells are covered in antibodies that can eliminate a certain bacteria. When it encounters it's bacteria, it bind itself to the bacteria and starts making copies of itself. Most turn into plasma/effector cells, which use the antibody bidden to the bacteria to create a whole lot of antibodies for that virus. They float around the blood stream and when the bacteria is found they bind to it like crazy, marking it for death. The rest become memory cells, which stick around and help provide information for future immunity.
Whew! Third: Acquired Immunity Summary of Immunities The Humoral System - infectious parts of blood and body tissues
The Cell Mediated System - actual body cells that have been infected. The Humoral and Cell-Mediated System Organs of
System Thymus produce T lymphocytes- white blood cells that destroy infections
major organ to protect from cancer and allergies Spleen Red Pulp
spenic artery (small stream so all could be filtered) White Pulp
makes immune cells, antibodies and blood cells
T and B cells (cells bring it to... fight the invader) spongy tissue cells come from
makes B-cells, killer cells, immature thymocytes, and granulocytes, platelets and red blood cells Bone Marrow trap germs
become less important as you grow up Adenoids filter
produce antibodies and lymphocytes
tonsillectomy (swell if infected) Tonsils found all over the body
filer for lymph
T/B Cells Lymph Nodes Kye By: Kendra "Cancer Research Institute." Cancer and the Immune System: Humoral Immune Response. American Institute Of Philanthropy , 2009. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cancerresearch.org/resources.aspx?id=586>.
F., Douglas . "Humoral Immunity." Humoral Immunity. 2012. Web. 13 Nov. 2012. <http://www.cehs.siu.edu/fix/medmicro/hir.htm>. "Tonsils and Tonsillectomies." KidsHealth. Nemours, 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://kidshealth.org/kid/ill_injure/sick/adenoids.html#>. "Tonsils and Tonsillectomies." KidsHealth. Nemours, 2012. Web. 15 Nov. 2012. <http://kidshealth.org/kid/ill_injure/sick/adenoids.html#>. Citations Addy Dugdale, David C, and David Zieve. "Autoimmune Disorders." Medline Plus. A.D.A.M., 29 May 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000816.htm>. "Autoimmune Disorders." Medline Plus. service of the U.S. National Library of Medicine, 6 Nov. 2012. Web. 16 Nov. 2012.<http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/autoimmunediseases.html>. Goldmuntz, Ellen, and Audrey S. Penn. "Publications." womenshealth.gov.
Womenshealth.gov, 14 Apr. 2010. Web. 16 Nov. 2012.
<http://womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/fact-sheet/autoimmune-diseases.cfm#a>. Connecting System Cardiovascular - Immune Cells Autoimmune Disorders Natural: Immunity that is received from our heritage, race, or something else.
Acquired: Immunity were when your body gets to teach itself to take care of a sickness.
Temporary: A immunity that is acquired and will wear off over time. Allergies