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Biomass Energy

Created By:Alisher Argynbekov 11 "D" Grade NIS Astana
by

Alisher Argynbekov

on 11 November 2012

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Transcript of Biomass Energy

Biomass A renewable energy source.
It is a biological material from living,
or recently living organisms. These metals are often found in functional molecules such as the porphyrins which include chlorophyll which contains magnesium. Biomass is carbon based and is composed of a mixture of organic molecules containing hydrogen, usually including atoms of oxygen, often nitrogen and also small quantities of other atoms, including alkali, alkaline earth and heavy metals. including
electricity, liquid, solid, and gaseous fuels, heat, chemicals, and other materials. Biomass technologies use renewable biomass resources to
produce an array of energy related products. As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly, or converted into other energy products such as bio fuel. Garbage
Wood
Waste
Landfill Gases
Alcohol Fuels Biomass energy is derived from five distinct energy sources: The largest source of energy from wood is pulping liquor or “black liquor,” a waste product from processes of the pulp, paper and paperboard industry. Wood energy is derived by using "lignocellulosic" biomass as fuel. Biomass conversion process to useful energy Thermal conversion processes use heat as the dominant mechanism to convert biomass into another chemical form. The basic alternatives of combustion, torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification are separated principally by the extent to which the chemical reactions involved are allowed to proceed (mainly controlled by the availability of oxygen and conversion temperature). Thermal conversion A chemical manufacturing process in which chemical transformation takes place, that is, the product differs chemically from the starting materials. Chemical conversion Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other micro-organisms to break down biomass. In most cases micro-organisms are used to perform the conversion process:

anaerobic digestion, fermentation and composting. Biochemical conversion Prior to the industrial revolution, biomass satisfied nearly all of man's energy demands. Up until the 1860s, the United States used biomass, in the form of wood, for nearly 91% of all energy consumption. In 1992 biomass generated $1.8 billion in personal and corporate income and employed 66,000 workers. Although presently the majority of humankind's energy requirements are fulfilled by fossil fuel combustion, 14% of the world still utilizes biomass. Brief History: Advantages of Biomass Biomass is derived from sources like plants and animals, in short, sources which are replaceable. Plants can be generated over and over again on the same piece of land without incurring any extra cost. Therefore, the raw material is readily available for use and makes for great renewable energy sources. Uses Renewable Resources The thing about fossil fuels like petroleum, coal and others, is that they are present in limited numbers. It takes millions of years for these fuels to be generated and therefore, when they are consumed and exhausted, civilization will not have to come at a standstill. Biomass fuels can be used as an effective energy source and therefore they reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. Reduces Dependency on Fossil Fuels This works on a lot of levels. First of all, biomass uses the waste material and converts it into an energy source. Therefore it reduces the instances of garbage being dumped and causing air pollution. So also, biomass helps to reduce the levels of methane in the air. Methane leads to the greenhouse effect and is thus, extremely harmful for the environment. By using the organic wastes before they release methane, biomass proves to be a savior. So also, growing the plants that are used as raw material for biomass, lead to more oxygen emissions and lessened carbon dioxide emissions. Reduces Pollution Disadvantages of Biomass The disadvantages of biomass electricity (for example) is that it is extremely expensive to produce. It requires a lot of resources to convert the raw materials to an energy source. It is in fact, more expensive than fossil fuel production. The reason being that there is not much research done in this area for it to be an advantageous alternative fuel source. Expensive It is difficult to generate all that raw material due to certain obstacles. For one, the plants that are used, are not grown all year round. Secondly, the harvesting and processing of the plants takes up more resources and energy and where animals are concerned, that source is always limited. Limited Sources This is an ironic point because even though biomass holds the ability to reduce the greenhouse effect by controlling the production of methane, there are environmental disadvantage biomass as well

If the plants are burned directly, they lead to as much environmental pollution as fossil fuel production does because they emit greenhouse gases. That is why, in some cases the production of biomass is also not as advantageous as one thinks. Causes Pollution Countries Using Biomass Energy India U.S.A. Australia Africa United Kingdom Wales So can the Kazakhstan use Biomass Energy? YES!!!! So can the Kazakhstan use Biomass Energy?? Biomass Effects on Economy: Biomass is the solution to lessen
the effects of Global Warming According to President Benigno III 89,000 jobs may be generated by increased use of biomass energy. Generates More Job Oppurtunities Rural economic development
and stability We spend billions
each year importing oil,
biomass could replace
half of this cost. Diversification of fuel sources would cut down on military spending and shift the focus to domestic welfare. Defending our access to foreign oil supplies is extremely costly. THE END!!! The potential of bioenergy in Kazakhstan In Kazakhstan, forests cover more than 10 million hectares, accounting for 4 percent of the total territory of the country, of which 4.7 million ha are covered saxaul. In 1990, the volume of timber in the country was about 3 million m3 per year. The volume of waste timber felling and wood on wood processing enterprises, as well as wood, which is used as fuel, is almost 1.3 million m3 or 1 million tons. Thus, the energy potential of wood waste is more than 200,000 tons of oil equivalent. In Kazakhstan, forests cover more than 10 million hectares, accounting for 4 percent of the total territory of the country, of which 4.7 million ha are covered saxaul. In 1990, the volume of timber in the country was about 3 million m3 per year. The volume of waste timber felling and wood on wood processing enterprises, as well as wood, which is used as fuel, is almost 1.3 million m3 or 1 million tons. Thus, the energy potential of wood waste is more than 200,000 tons of oil equivalent.
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