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What are the proposed advantages of adopting a TARGET motiva

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John Hyatt

on 15 January 2015

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Transcript of What are the proposed advantages of adopting a TARGET motiva

Multiple Intelligences

Teaching Styles

Instruction and learning, teaching and learning or ‘a science of learning’ Armour (2004)

Pedagogy

Other research has found that good coaches act like good teachers
(Gilbert & Trudel, 2001).

‘coaching really is a form of teaching’

…is essentially an educational process, with the focus in sport is on activity’
(Capel, 2000; 137)

Sport covers a range of physical activities in which adults and young people may participate, P.E., on the other hand, is a process of learning’
(DES/WO 1991:7)

Pedagogy for coaches

By the end of this session you will be able to:
Discuss and describe different learning theories and apply them to the coaching environment
Discuss and describe teaching styles applied to the coaching environment
Discuss and describe multiple intelligences and motivational climate in the coaching context

Learning outcomes

Motivational climate

Teaching Styles

Learning Theories

Compare and contrast behavioural and constructivist learning theories.

Which do you most agree with? Why?

‘any conscious activity by one person designed to enhance learning in another’ (Watkins & Mortimer, 1999: 3)

Environment to ‘grow players’

Traditionally coaching has being viewed as training and attainment of skills, and teaching has been seen to be about the total development of the individual.
(Jones, 2006: Lee 1988)

Is there a difference between teaching and coaching?

Sir Clive Woodward is quoted as stating that the ‘best coaches are good teachers’. Do you agree? Why?

By the end of this session you will be able to:
Discuss and describe different learning theories and apply them to the coaching environment
Discuss and describe teaching styles applied to the coaching environment
Discuss and describe multiple intelligences and motivational climate in the coaching context

Learning outcomes

Teaching Styles

Imagine you are taking your first coaching session with a new team. From a teaching perspective, how do you approach it? What style do you adopt? Why?

What coach most resemble your style?
Why?

Social Learning Theories

Learning Theories

Behavioural Learning Theories

Learning Theories

Constructivist Learning Theories

Learning Theories

Intrapersonal

Interpersonal

Kinaesthetic

Visual/spatial

Musical/
Rhythmic

Mathematical

Multiple
Intelligences

Verbal
/Linguistic

THF 47 Coaching and Learning styles
How Can we Coach or Teach if we do not know how they learn?
Activity: Recipe Time

Classroom Split -
Team A - what are the key characteristics that make an excellent teacher?
6-3-1
Team B - - what are the key characteristics that make an excellent Coach?
6-3-1
Yet beneath the apparently unproblematic appeal
of learning styles lies a host of conceptual and empirical problems. To begin with, the learning styles field is not unified, but instead is divided into three linked areas of activity: theoretical, pedagogical and commercial. (Coffield, 2004)
How do you identify when Learning has occurred?
Numbers How many...
Words Where does the word come from..
People Who...
Feelings What emotions...
Nature How does the environment affect...
Actions What do people do...
Sounds What songs have been written about it...
Sights What images represent...

Other influential ideas
derive from established psychological theories, such
as personality traits, intellectual abilities and fixed
traits which are said to form learning styles. From this
latter perspective, it is claimed that learning styles can
be defined accurately and then measured reliably and
validly through psychological tests in order to predict
behaviour and achievement.
Recent interview data from elite coaches, however, has demonstrated that they view their role not as physical trainers but as educators (Jones et al 2004). For example, British Lion’s rugby coach Ian McGeechan talks about a learning environment to ‘grow players’. Similarly Graham Taylor suggests that ‘coaching really is a form of teaching’ as it primarily involves communicating, learning, and maintaining positive relationships with those being taught (Jones, 2004:21).


Other research has found that good coaches act like good teachers, as they care about those for whom they have responsibility and constantly engage in reflection on what they do and how they do it (Gilbert & Trudel, 2001). This suggests that athlete learning as opposed to mechanistic performance is at the heart of coaching and therefore pedagogy should play a more important role in preparing coaches.
Although historically, the term ‘pedagogy’ was used mainly in connection with children as learners, today the term is used more broadly, referring to learning and learners of all ages. This is important as the department has a strong interest in teachers, coaches and their career-long professional learning. In defining Sport Pedagogy, the department has drawn upon the work of Leach & Moon (1999), Alexander (2008) and Pollard (2010) in education, and the work of Armour (forthcoming), Tinning (2008), Kirk, Macdonald, and O’Sullivan (2006) and Rovegno (2003) in the broad field of physical education/sport pedagogy.
Pedagogical coat of Arms
What they do?
Practical
Academic
Qualifications
Write down a drill that you commonly use when your coaching. 2 mins However try and be as detailed as you can!!
Agree or Disagree?

Why?
Hence why pedagogy is seen to be outside the coaching process!
Establising an
environment
of learning to
grow

players
Coaching really is a form of teaching as it primarily involves communicating, learning and maintaining a positive relationship with those being taught. (Jones, 2004)
Do we all agree that learning is at the heart of coaching?
Jones (2006) therefore suggests that “athlete learning as opposed to mechanistic performance is at the heart of coaching” and that pedagogic theory could play a central role in coaching and coach ed.

The term itself has no agreed definition but the more widely accepted definitions refer to it as "a set of teaching tactics" (Galton et al, 1980) "instructional format" (Siedentop, 1991).

In PE circles the definition of it is "the general pattern created by using a particular set of strategies" (BAALPE, 1989, p.9).

Teaching Style
Mosston and Ashworth (2002) - Spectrum of Teaching Styles.

a b c d e f g h i j
j i h g f e d c b a
teachers decisions
students decisions
Teaching and learning is based on decision making – What to teach/learn? when to teach/learn? how to present/acquire the ideas/skills etc? At one end of the spectrum the teacher makes all of the decisions at the other end, the learner. In between are a range of styles that can be used.

Style A

Command
- Coach makes all decisions

Style B

Practice
- Athletes carry out coach-prescribed tasks

Style C

Reciprocal
- Athletes work in pairs: one performs, the other provides feedback

Style D

Self-check
- Athletes assess their own performance against set criteria

Style E

Inclusion
– Coach-planned. Coach provides alternative levels of difficulty for athlete.

Style F

Guided Discovery
– Coach plans a target and leads the athletes to discover it.

Style G

Convergent Discovery
- Coach presents a problem and athletes provide the correct solution.

Style H

Divergent Discovery
– Coach presents a problem and athletes find their own solution.

Style I

Individual Programme
- Coach determines content. Athlete plans the programme.

Style J

Learner Initiated
– Athlete takes full responsibility for the learning process.
Which of these do you recognize from your coaching?

Do you think there might be particular sports or activities that are better suited to one (or more) of the identified styles in the spectrum?

If so, why is this?

Application
Metzler (2000)
A particular style is selected based on;
- The intended learning outcomes
- The teaching context and environment
- The learner’s developmental stage

No style is right or wrong
The framework is meant to enable understanding and improve practice
A pick and mix approach is advocated
However, most effective learning takes place at the learner-led end of the spectrum.

Which teaching / coaching style do we advocate?
Pick and mix – but…
Most effective learning takes place at the learner-led end of the spectrum.
How do we make this happen?

Whole Learning (Kay, 2003)
The following domains must be developed;
Physical
Social
Affective
Cognitive
Full transcript