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Copy of Introduction to Nutrition

Understanding Australia’s Health (Unit 3 Outcome 1) - Nutrients, their food sources and function
by

Sondae Stevens

on 15 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Introduction to Nutrition

Nutrients Micronutrients Macronutrients Carbohydrates Simple Carbohydrates Complex Carbohydrates (polysaccharide’s) Monosaccharides Disaccharides Glucose Galactose Fructose Sucrose Lactose Maltose Glycogen Starch Fiber Protein Soluble Fiber Insoluble Fiber Resistant Starch Minerals WATER Vitamins Nutrients that are small in size and only needed in small quantities in the functions they perform Nutrients made up of large molecules that required by the body in high quantities in order to perform necessary functions such as provision of energy. Organic and inorganic substances found in food that are required by the body for the growth and maintenance of body systems. Kids need 130 g/day.
Provide body with energy.
Can be found in simple and complex forms.
Undergo digestion, absorption and glycolysis.
Most abundant organic compound.
Consists principally of sugar, starch, dextrin, cellulose and glycogen.
Generally divided into two types - simple (Sugars: fruit, honey, milk) and complex (Starches: vegetables and grains).
Broken down into glucose for use in body. Occur naturally in fruits, vegetables and dairy products also White Foods: white bread, pasta, cereal are all actually sugar
Glucose is most common type of sugar and primary form sugar is stored in the body.
Elevate blood sugar rapidly - instant energy. A single unit of carbohydrate (eg. glucose) Two monosaccharide units joined together. The edible parts of plants or similar CHO digested in the large intestine through fermentation
Two "major" types - soulable and insoluble + resistant starch.
Need to consume both types each day to maintain health bowels and control rises in blood sugar. Fiber in the form pectins and gums found in fruits, vegetables, oats and legumes. This is why oatmeal is a preferred grain to start with children.
It has a binding effect that can lead to the incrased removal of cholesterol from the body.
May also cause removal of some minerals. Mainly cellulose, which makes up structural part of plant cell walls.
Major role in adding bulk to feces...Metamucil would go out of business if people ate enough vegetables Digestion Large molecules comprised of two or more monosaccaride units.
Some theories believe complex carbohydrates take longer to breakdown so provide energy over longer periods of time and do not result in rapid rises of blood sugar - it is now considered to be more complex depending on the CHO molocule.
Dietary Fibre is a complex carbohydrate. Part of starchy food - resists normal digestion.
Used by body as a food source for bacteria (needed for fermentation).
Found in unprocessed cereals and grains, firm bananas, potatoes, lentils and added to breakfast cereals. Children need no more than 1g/kg/day.
Traditional nutrition suggests meat. A burger has 13 g of protein, a cup of black beans has 20g. Organic compounds that make up living organisims.
Vegetables contain protein...a cup of brocolli has 6 grams, 2T of peanut butter has 9 g of protein.
Predominant component of cells - thus needed for growth, repair and maintenance of body tissues.
Vary from long chains to small globules that can pass through cell membranes.
Form structural unit of tissues.
Act as chemical messengers.
Used to produce enzymes, hormones and antibodies.
Can be metabloised to provide energy. Polysacharides Long chains of sugar molecules.
Must be broken down before the body can use them. Fat Fats are the most concentrated form of energy for the body.
Fats help insulate body organs (warmth and shock absorption), maintain healthy skin and hair, promote healthy cell function.
Aid in the absorption of the fat-soluble vitamins, A, D, E and K and other fat-soluble biologically-active components.
Three Types - Saturated Fats, Unsaturated Fats (monunsaturated and polyunsaturated) and Trans Fats
Fats come from meats and dairy products (Saturated) and some plant products (Unsaturated). Amino Acids 15 Different Types
8 that the body can not produce - these are called Essential Amino Acids - only obtained through foods eaten.
Animal Protien (meat, eggs, dairy) - contain all essential amino acids.
Traditional Nutrition says Plant sources are low in Essential Amino Acids. Soy contains all 9 essential amino acids hence its popularity with vegans and vegetarians. Complete Protien Incomplete Protein Provides an appropriate balance of the eight essential amino acids. Incomplete proteins can be eaten at different times of the day and still form complete proteins. Saturated Fats Unsaturated Fats Trans Fats Cholesterol Tend to besolid at room temp.
Major source is animal products.
Type of lipid - have Hydrogen atom attached to every bond - no double bonds.
Sources: Meat, full-fat milk, cheese, butter, cream, biscuits, most deep fried foods. Monounsaturated Polyunsaturated Most Common fats found in plant based oils (eg.olicve), margarines, avocados, , almonds, cashews...
Helps lower levels of LDLs.
Do not have Hydrogen attached to each bond.
Have one double bond. Do not have Hydrogen attached to each bond.
Have more than one double bond.
Found in vegetable oils.
Omega-3 and omega-6 are two types - help protect us agains disease.
Source: Fish, seafood, vegetable oils, walnuts, seeds. Involved in rearrangement of molecular pattern of fatty accids not normally present in the body.
Usually involves addition of Hydrogen molecules.
Tend to increase levels of LDLs and lower levels of HDLs. A waxy, fat-like substance.
Used to build cell walls.
Produced in liver or absorbed from animal fats eaten. LDL- Low Denisity Lipoproteins HDL - High Density Lipoproteins Enzymes Carry most of the cholesterol from liver to cells.
If there is an excess of cholesterol, or it can not be delivered properly to cells, LDL tends to accumulate in the vessel walls forming palque.
This is known as Atherosclerosis and can lead to heart attacks. HDLs recover cholesterol from the cells, vessel walls and other lipoproteins.
Tend to prevent or reverse the build up of plaque in the arteries. Atherosclerosis What is Protein? Essential for regulation of body's metabolic functions.
Required in small amounts on daily basis.
Help use energy effectively.
Involved in regulating many chemicals and chemical reactions - eg enzymes and hormones.
Two types - Fat-Soluble and Water-Soluble. Fat-soluble Water-soluble Vit D enough to keep levels 50-100nmol/L will need to supplement in Chicago.
Not Soluble in Water.
Stored in liver of fatty tissue.
Transported arround body by proteins.
Vit A about 500mcg/day which is 1/2 c grated carrot Dissolve easily in water.
Readily Excreted - NOT stored.
Need daily intake. Vitamin A Vitamin D Vitamin E Vitamin K Vitamin B(group) Vitamin C B1 (Thiamin) B3 (Niacin) B4 (Riboflavin) B6 (Pyridoxine) B9 (Folate/folic acid) B12 (cyanocobalamin) Calcium Phosphorous Iron Sodium Iodine Fluoride Eat It! Children need form 5mg-15mg/day
1 oz of almonds is 7.4mg
Slows cellular aging due to oxidation (anti-aging).
Boosts the body's immune system function.
Helps lower blood pressure and protect against atherosclerosis and heart disease.
Source: vegetable oils (such as sunflower, soybean, safflower); wheat germ oil; dark green leafy vegetables such as chard, mustard greens, spinach... Necessary for growth and repair.
Involved in maintenance of epithelial tissues - reducing susceptibility to infection.
Eye maintenance and night vision.
Found in dairy and meat products - milk, cheese, butter, eggs, cream, liver, kidney. Also found in oily fish and foods with orange colouring (beta-carotene) - carrots, pumpkin, rock melon, sweet potatoes. A group of chemically different substances that work together to perform functions, including:
Metabolism of CHO, Fat and Protein.
Maintenance of healthy skin.
Enhancement of immune and nervous systems.
Promotion of cell growth and division.
Found in Breads, Cereals, Fruits and Vegetables. Required for formation of collagen - connective tissue protein that holds body structures together, eg. skin, cartilage, bones, teeth, gums, blood vessels.
Plays role in Heamoglobin formation and absorption of Iron.
Promotes wound healing.
Found in Citrus fruits, strawberries, capsicum, tomatoes, broccoli... most fruit and vegetables contain some Vitamin C. Essential for absorption, regulation and utilisation of calcium and phosphorous - growth and maintenance of bones and teeth.
Role in maintaining stable nervous system, normal heart action and blood clotting.
Can be manufactured by the body when exposed to sunlight and also absorbed through digestion.
Food sources include butter, margarine, cream, fish such as salmon and tuna, and liver and kidney. Stored in the body's fat tissue and liver.
Required to help blood clot (coagulate) properly.
Also plays an important role in bone health.
Sources include: beef liver, green tea, turnip greens, broccoli, kale, spinach, cabbage, asparagus, and dark green lettuce. Chlorophyll is the substance in plants that gives them their green color and provides vitamin K.
Freezing foods may destroy vitamin K, but heating does not affect it. Inorganic elements in the diet and the body.
Some minerals form bones and teeth.
Certain minerals are necessary for the human body to function properly.
Some minerals are needed in very small amounts and are referred to as microminerals.
Others are needed in larger amounts and are known as macro minerals.
Many minerals are toxic in large doses, especially trace minerals such as zinc, selenium, chromium, and magnesium, of which the body requires very little in order to function properly. Kids need around 1,ooomg
A cup of dried figs is 300mg, 4oz of tofu can be up to 400mg Brocolli is 180mg/cup
Key constituent of bones and teeth;
Essential for vital metabolic processes such as nerve function, muscle contraction, and blood clotting.
Source: Dairy Produce Kids need about 1,000mg : a large portabello mushroom
Constituent of bone tissue;
Forms compounds needed for energy conversion reactions.
Sources: Dairy products; Fruits (most fruits); Meat; Pulses; Vegetables(esp.leafy green ). Kids need 10-15mg/day 1c tofu 13.2 mg, 1c lentils 6.5mg
Essential for transfer of oxygen between tissues in the body.
Source: Blood (e.g. "Black Pudding"), Eggs, Green (leafy) vegetables, Fortified foods (e.g. cereals, white flour), Liver, Meat, Nuts, Offal, Peas, Whole grains.
Deficiancy can lead to anemia Controls the volume of extracellular fluid in the body.
Maintains the acid-alkali (pH) balance in the body.
Necessary to maintain electrical potentials of the nervous system - and so functioning of muscle and nerve tissues.
Source: Processed bakery products, Processed foods generally (incl. tinned and cured products), Table Salt. Zinc Needed for: Functioning of many (over 200) enzymes, strong immune system.
Sources: Dairy produce, Egg yolk, Liver, Red meat, Seafood, Whole-grain flour. The thyroid gland needs iodine to help the release of energy in the body.
Without it, a person gains weight and is fatigued.
On the other hand, with hyperthyroid, a person loses weight and is hyperactive.
Plays a role in the development of hair, fingernails, skin and teeth
Sources : Seaweeds, onions, leafy vegetables, mushrooms, fish, shellfish, and other seafood. Brain is 75% water. Moderate dehydration can cause headaches and dizziness
Required for expiration
Regulates body temperature
Carries nutrients and oxygen to all cells in the body
Blood is 92% water
Moistens oxygen for breathing
Protects and cushions vital organs
Helps to convert food into energy
Helps body absorb nutrients
Removes waste
Bones are 22% water
Muscles are 75% water
Cushions joints Glycemic Index Is a way of ranking foods that contain carbohydrates.
Goes from 0-100
Measures how quickly glucose is absorbed from food into our blood.
High GI means absorbed very quickly.
Low GI means absorbed slowly.
Does not measure other sugars. Ex agave has a low glycemic index because it is fructose. Glucose is essential for us to make energy and survive.
When we get glucose in our blood, it is transported to cells and used to make energy.
When glucose levels rise, insulin is released to convert and store excess glucose, usually as fat. How Does Glucose Work? Yes! We need to use energy through out the day. If it is released slowly, we use it as it is produced. This typically means that these is no excess to be stored.

If there is too much, we store it as fat. Later, because all the glucose has been removed, we actually have less glucose available and need to eat again. We feel hungry, eat hi GI again and the cycle continues. These are called fluctuations in blood glucose levels. Does it Matter Be careful!
GI is not the only way to measure the nutritional value of food.
Even if it releases energy slowly, it may not have much nutrients. Also, some high GI foods are necessary because of the nutrients they contain.
The only way to get the right amount of nutrients, maintain a healthy weight and prevent diet related and hypokinetic diseases is to
Eat a BALANCED DIET, and
EXERCISE REGULARLY But..... 1. Which end of the index would simple and complex carbohydrates be at?
2. Can you think of any foods that are either high or low in GI value?
3. Which do you think it would be better to eat more of? Why?
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