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Transcript of CHINA
History of China
Invention, Philosophies and Beliefs
Imperialism in China
The Rule of K’ang Hsi
► The lasting Prince
► authored the Sixteen Maxims on the Art of Government.
► reorganized the administrative system in the 18 provinces of China proper.
► opened the Chinese port to foreign traders.
► Most Populous Country in the world ( 9,569, 901) total land mass
► Geography: World's fourth largest country
► Language: Putonguah/Mandarin
► Religion: Taoist, Buddhist, Christian 3-4%, and Muslim 1-2%
► Currency: Chinese Yuan
► Government: Communist
► GDP growth 9.6%
► China has become the most fast growing economy in the world after Beijing Olympic.
second-longest river in asia
Craddle of Chinese Civilization
one of the most dealiest river in the world.
Floods in Yangtze river
1332-33 kills over 7M people
1887 - 900k to 2M people
1931 - 1-4M people
- after the flood yangtze river brings loess that fertilizes the land.
the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world
Xia (2100 – 1650BCE)
►The dynasty was established by the legendary
Yu the Great
made water irrigation to controll the flood.
Shang (1650 – 1027BCE)
► used bronze, jade, stone, bone, and ceramic artifacts.
site has yielded the earliest known body of Chinese writing, mostly divination's inscribed on
turtle shells, ox scapulae, or other bones.
Chou (1027BC – 256BCE)
longest dynasty, lasted three thousand years.
► Confucian school was build.
Civil service examination
was given by the government to any man who was interested to serve the government.
Chin (256 – 206 BCE)
Chin Shih Huang-ti
- known as the "
- the word "
" derived from his name
- ordered to construct the
Great Wall of China
also known for his
Han (206 – 220 CE)
- favored the ideology of Confucius
discovered Great silk road
through this silk road the traders from Han dynasty discovered the ideas of
Sui (589 – 618 CE)
- reunited the northern and southern china
by building the
Tang (618 – 960 CE)
- Golden Age of China
- China achieved its most powerful and
- invaded Turks in the North and influenced
Korea and Japan
Sung (960 – 1279CE)
- Foreign trade was expanded. The lists of exports showed gold, silver, copper, cash, and porcelain.
- Several inventions in the form of
, printing, use of ink were made during this age.
was invented and found to be useful for finding directions and for navigation.
Yuan (1279 – 1368)
- nomadic leader of Mongols
- also known as
- one of the greatest conquerors in the world.
- After the death of Genghis Khan his predecessor
Kublai Khan continued the conquest of his Grandfather
Kublai Khan's empire extent to Persia and a Part of Russia considered as the largest Empire in history.
Ming (1368 – 1662)
- led a rebelion against Mongols and proclaimed
himself as the emperor of Ming
- built his capital in Nanking
- built Naval fleet of China
in 1421 Emperor Yunglo ordered to build
a walled city (
Manchu (1662 – 1917)
- descended from the Jurchen people who earlier established the Jin dynasty (1115–1234) in China
- red tasseled Manchus
- largest minority group in China without an autonomous region
► center of the world – “Middle Kingdom”
► invention of paper, printing, gunpowder and magnetic compass
made changes in the history of the world.
► remarkable continuity of Chinese civilization over more than 3000 years made them demonstrate great powers of survival.
Chinese Ancient Philosophies
Schools of thought
- system of moral, social, political, and religious thought
”Do not do unto others what you do not want to do unto you” - Confucius
– a philosophy on which a religion based.
“ Accept everything just the way it is.” – Lao Tzu
- a political philosophy synthesized by a philosopher named Han Fei.
"when the epoch changed, the ways changed"
- philosophy that synthesized the concepts of yin-yang and the Five elements (water, fire, wood, metal, and earth). - Thales
- promotes universal love with the aim of mutual benefit.
”Everyone must love each other equally and impartially to avoid conflict and war.” – Mo Ti
- concerned with logic, paradoxes, names and actuality.
- an early agrarian social and political philosophy that advocated peasant utopian communalism and egalitarianism.
The Rule of
► The greatest conqueror of the manchu.
► made canton became the center of foreign trade through Co – hong.
► did not allowed foreigners to reside at the port trade.
The First Opium War
► because of restrictions, British were forced to smuggle opium.
► Commissioner Lin compelled all merchants to surrender all their stocks of opium.
► 1839, first imperialist war in the east broke out.
► Chinese were no match and they lost.
► determined to gain profitable trade with the Chinese, the British discovered and traded opium.
► Chinese government demanded that opium sales be stopped.
First Opium War Treaty
► Treaty of Nanking
- Opening of the ports were the British would enjoy extraterritorial rights.
- Hong kong was ceded to Great Britain.
- Chinese were required to pay damage for the cost of war and opium.
- “most favored country” granted to Great Britain.
The Second Opium War
► caused by the seizure of the Chinese authorities of a
► Russians forced China to give up the Ussuri territory.
► Japan claimed Ryukyu Islands and later on, took over the islands of Formosa.
Treaty of Tientsin, 1860
► Opening of additional ports to foreign trades.
►Granting the right to reside Peking and to travel to any part of China to foreigners.
► Toleration of Christianity
► Legalization of the Opium trade
The Republican Revolution
► Kuomintang proclaimed the Chinese Republic based on Sun Yat – sen’s “The Three People’s Principles”
► students from abroad wanted to end the Manchu Dynasty and would accept nothing but republic.
► 10 years revolution.
Dr. Sun Yat-sen
, Father of the Chinese Republic
► Born in Canton
► lived in United States, Studied in Hawaii, and finished his medicine in Hong kong.
► pushed for a unified and modernized China.
► revolution was unsuccessful, but his idea inspired many Chinese to continue their movements towards unity and independence.
The Nationalist Revolution (June 1928)
► Nationalist Army grew in strength
► Occupied Peking and renamed to Peiping
, leader of the right wing and set up nationalist government in Nanking.
► ordered the arrest of the communist.
► almost wiped out the Chinese communist party.
Problems Confronted by the Nationalists
► goal of land reform not fulfilled because of the landlords of
the countryside blocked the way fore these much needed reform.
► peasants turned away from the nationalist movement and joined the communist party.
► In 1928, Chiang established the Nationalist Republic of China with himself as a President.
Japanese Attacks ( World War II )
► Japan attack China in 1931
► 1940, China was divided into 3 sections
► Japanese controlled all 3 sections
► Japan took control of Manchuria and the Chinese
Nationalist and Communist Party Unite.
► Mao preached revolution, a policy called “ The New Democracy.”
► son of a wealthy farmer in Shaoshan, Hunan
►Chairman Mao (December 26, 1893 – September 9, 1976)
► Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment
► On October 1, 1949 Mao proclaimed the foundation of the People's Republic of China (PRC)
► set up their own government in jiangxi
► modeled on the Russian – communist regime and was
repeatedly attacked by the Nationalist.
► “Long March”
► Chiang kai – shek and the Nationalist fled to Taiwan.
► Success of communism in China was partly due to the weakness of Kuomintang.
The Communist Revolution
Chinese Government Structure
• Sir Mones for inspiring us
• Danica for inspiring me
• My Family and Friends
• Chinese Civilization book,
Turning Points II,and Mr. Google
for all the information.
At the end of the lesson students are expected to:
A. Understand about the ancient civilization of China;
B. Value the heroic contribution of the revolutionary
C. Portray ancient warriors in ancient civilization of China.
one of the world's oldest cultures. The area in which the culture is dominant covers a large geographical region in eastern Asia with customs and traditions varying greatly between provinces, cities, and even towns. Important components of Chinese culture include literature, music, visual arts, martial arts, cuisine, religion etc.
Since the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors period, some form of Chinese monarch has been the main ruler above all. Different periods of history have different names for the various positions within society. Conceptually each imperial or feudal period is similar, with the government and military officials ranking high in the hierarchy, and the rest of the population under regular Chinese law.
Most social values are derived from Confucianism and Taoism. The subject of which school was the most influential is always debated as many concepts such as Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism and many others have come about.
The ancient written standard was Classical Chinese. It was used for thousands of years, but was mostly reserved for scholars and intellectuals which forms the "top" class of the society called "shi da fu (士大夫）". Calligraphy later became commercialized, and works by famous artists became prized possessions.
Mythology and Spirituality
Chinese religion was originally oriented to worshipping the supreme god Shang Di during the Xia and Shang dynasties, with the king and diviners acting as priests and using oracle bones. The Zhou dynasty oriented it to worshipping the broader concept of heaven. A large part of Chinese culture is based on the notion that a spiritual world exists. Countless methods of divination have helped answer questions, even serving as an alternate to medicine. Folklores have helped fill the gap for things that cannot be explained. There is often a blurred line between myth, religion and unexplained phenomenon.
Music and dance
Music and dance were closely associated in the very early periods of China. The music of China dates back to the dawn of Chinese civilization with documents and artifacts providing evidence of a well-developed musical culture as early as the Zhou Dynasty (1122 BCE - 256 BCE). The earliest music of the Zhou Dynasty recorded in ancient Chinese texts includes the ritual music called yayue and each piece may be associated with a dance.
Traditional Chinese music
Different forms of art have swayed under the influence of great philosophers, teachers, religious figures and even political figures. Chinese art encompasses all facets of fine art, folk art and performance art. Porcelain pottery was one of the first forms of art in the Palaeolithic period. Early Chinese music and poetry was influenced by the Book of Songs, and the Chinese poet and statesman Qu Yuan.
became a highly appreciated art in court circles encompassing a wide variety of Shan shui with specialized styles such as Ming Dynasty painting. Early Chinese music was based on percussion instruments, which later gave away to stringed and reed instruments. By the Han dynasty papercutting became a new art form after the invention of paper. Chinese opera would also be introduced and branched regionally in additional to other performance formats such as variety arts.
China is one of the main birth places of Eastern martial arts. Chinese martial arts are collectively given the name Kung Fu (gong) "achievement" or "merit", and (fu) "man", thus "human achievement") or (previously and in some modern contexts) Wushu ("martial arts" or "military arts"). China also includes the home to the well-respected Shaolin Monastery and Wudang Mountains.
Men and women in xuanduan formal wear at a Confucian ceremony in China
Different social classes in different eras boast different fashion trends, the colour yellow or red is usually reserved for the emperor. China's fashion history covers hundreds of years with some of the most colourful and diverse arrangements.
Chinese meal in Suzhou with rice, shrimp, eggplant, fermented tofu, vegetable stir-fry, vegetarian duck with meat and bamboo.
The overwhelmingly large variety of Chinese cuisine comes mainly from the practice of dynastic period, when emperors would host banquets with 100 dishes per meal.
The Secret History of Genghis Khan
Thank you so much!!!!