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Food Genetics

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maya Sabbagh

on 26 January 2013

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Transcript of Food Genetics

Zeus Miranda Felix
Maya Sabbagh
Paige Wagner Food Engineering Knowledge Issue To what extent are ethics used to justify innovations in the natural sciences? Food Engineering ['fud, en-je, nir-in] Dictionary: The technical discipline involved in food manufacturing and processing Areas of Knowledge Ethics
Study of how humans should act
Moral Reasoning
moral choices
What is right and wrong?
Natural Sciences
Describe and explain the physical world
look for patterns Presentation definition: Any alteration to foods being consumed by the general population Genetically Modified Foods "Scientists transfer genetic information or DNA from one more organisms across species boundaries into a host organism to create new genetically engineered organism" 1970s first genetically engineered organisms
World refuses US food
Europe only buys organic
organic market is fastest growing market Genetic Roulette Advantages Reduce world hunger
Higher crop yields from stronger plants
Healthier plants
More food faster
Reduces cost of production
Improved nutrition
Golden Rice
Environmental benefits
Reduce pollution from pesticides and fertilizers
Protects natural plant life
Saves land
Reduced allergenicity Disadvantages No longitudinal tests
Health risks to people
Scientists cannot predict what will happen
Could cause viruses to be antibiotic resistant
Emergence of new viruses
Cause allergies
Pesticides kill non harmful insects
Monarch butterflies
Pesticides are harmful to humans
high risk for fetuses and babies
Adverse affects on livestock fed modified food
Patenting and owning genes
Threatens biodiversity
genetic diversity
Contaminate natural habitat or organic crops
US lose money
Research inhumane
Pig 6707 Language
Reason
Emotion Reason
Emotion
Language Cloning Asexual reproduction
Creation of an organism that is the exact genetic copy of another
Extract DNA from desired animal
Remove nucleus from egg cell
Insert DNA from desired animal into egg cell
Insert cell into surrogate mother Effects Can trace sepcific gene, ie. larger livestock
Higher mortality rate
More prone to disease
Over 99% failure rate
Harmful to humans Dairy Production Hormones are naturally found in milk
Dairy cows injected with hormones
Monsanto produced
Bovine Growth Hormone (rBGH)
79% increase in mastitis
19% increase in soma cells
Products used to treat infections go into milk
IGF-1promotes cell division
"programmed cell death"
Bovine Growth Hormone banned in other countries Hormones found in milk Mammary-derived Growth Inhibitor (MDGI)
Nerve growth Factor (NGF)
Neurotensin (NT)
Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
Parathyroid Hormone Related Peptide (PTHrP)
Progesterone
Prolactin
Somatostatin
Testosterone
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Thyrotropin Releasing Hormone (TRH)
Transforming Growth Factor beta-1 (TGFBI)
Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) Andrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Bombesin (Gastrin Releasing peptide-GRP)
Bovine Growth hormone (BGH)
Calcitonin
Cholecystokinin (CCK)
Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)
Erythropoietin (EPO)
The Estrogens
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Gastrin
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH1)
Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone (GHRH)
Insulin
Insulin like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1)
Luteinizing Hormone (LH) Effects Higher cancer rates since hormone addition to milk
Modern milk in Japan had 10 times more hormones than raw milk in Mongolia
Study in Mongolia on third grade children who consumed US milk
hormone levels jumped
Affected menstrual cycles
age dropping for first menstrual cycle
puberty hits faster Hormone [hor-mone] A regulatory substance produced in an organism and transported in tissue fluids such as blood to stimulate specific cells
A syntehtic substance with a similar effect Dairy Production AOK: Ethics and Natural Sciences Ethics:
Is it ethical to put profit before the general welfare of a population?
Monsanto monopoly
Food industry is the fastest growing industry
Is it ethical to change the natural state of any living organism?
Forced genetic mutations
Bovine growth hormone
Article 27
How ethical is cloning?
Dolly
cloning carcasses
occurs in nature- identical twins

Natural Sciences:
In what ways can innovations in science harm or help the public?
long term effects unknown
environmental issues
Do the benefits of scientific innovations outweigh the costs?
growing trends in cancer and autism
food surplus Connections Conclusions Knower's Perspective: Zeus Miranda Felix Knower's Perspective: Maya Sabbagh Knower's Perspective: Paige Wagner Ethical Considerations Golden Rice Article 27 of the Universal Decleration of Human Rights
Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancements and its benefits.
Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author. 10 million children under the age of 5 die every year Inhumane Research Pig 6707
Experiment done to produce pigs with less fat
8,000 pigs were bred with this hormone; only # 6707 produced desired hormone
Animal Welfare Act Ethical Considerations Carcass Cloning Regenerating life from cow cadavers to produce more desirable meat
Better tasting meat
Beef industry isn't telling people
Mystery meat Religious Backlash Catholic church believes life begins at conception
not created artificially
Destroying embyros in the name of science Health Issues High disability rate in animals
higher mortality rate
Produce tissues and organs
Human cloning? Ethical Considerations Health The age for puberty is trending downwards
Cancer risks associated with BGH
Infection in cow
Cows forced to produce milk Only 4 out of 82 antibiotics tested for in milk
farmers forced to pay for tanker of milk if contaminated
Monsanto influences laws made over the food industry
mistreatment of cows
video released in 2010 of farmers' treatment of dairy animals Rules and Regulations To what extent are ethics used to justify innovations in the natural sciences? Health concerns
Treatment of animals
Religious practices
Economic Genetically engineered (GE) - This is the standard U.S. term for a process in which foreign genes are spliced into a non-related species, creating an entirely new organism.

Genetically modified (GM) - The same as GE, this term is more widely used in Europe because it translates more easily among different languages.

Genetically modified organisms (GMO) - The actual organism that is created through genetic engineering.

Biotech foods, gene-foods, bioengineered food, gene-altered foods, transgenic foods - Foods that have been created through genetic engineering.

Frankenfoods - Another term for the above, referes to the story of Frankenstein and science gone bad. 1999 statistics GMO Stats Soybeans : 57%
Corn: 38%
Cotton: 65%
Canola: +50% 2012 statistics Soybeans: 93-95%
Corn: 86%
Cotton: 93%
Canola: 93% Production Big dairy industry
More milk is produced Pesticide usage
used to prevent bugs from getting to food
harms environment
Nuclear power
can be used as clean energy
effects can be deadly
Chernobyl
Biological warfare
viruses can be engineered
if in the wrong hands, can wipe out population
'Designer babies'
people can live healthier, longer lives
creation of 'super race'
Animal research
advances in medicine
considers human life more valuable than animal (1997) Emotion
Reason Emotion
Reason
Language
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