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Ice Age: Across a Land Bridge

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on 20 August 2013

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Transcript of Ice Age: Across a Land Bridge

Native Americans
Where were your ancestors living 10,000 years ago?
Only if you are Native Americans did you have relatives in America
Europeans and other groups did not start coming here until a little over 500 years ago.

SIBERIA in ASIA
Ice Age: Across a Land Bridge (30,000 years ago!)
Earth was cold & covered by sheets of ice.
A wide bridge of land formed between Siberia (in Asia) and Alaska (in North America).
Bridge was called: BERINGIA
Location 3
ALASKA in NORTH AMERICA
Summer time grasslands attracted Asian mammals

animals slowly spread east

Siberians hunters followed

Other migrants traveled along the coast of Beringia to catch fish, seals, & other marine mammals
The Land Bridge
BERINGIA
BERNGIA: Land Bridge
Our World
stone-tipped spear
Mammoth
Migrating East & South
Spring warmed the earth
glaciers melted
land bridge disappeared
Mammoths and prey started dying from over-hunting, disease, and climate change
Need to adapt!
Hunter-gatherers: began catching smaller fish, collecting edible plants & seeds
over thousands of years, these first migrants spread across the two American continents

from Pacific to Atlantic

from Alaska to the tip of South America
Migrating East & South
Migrate: to move from one place and establish a home in a new place. A move of large number of people is called a migration, and the people who move are called migrants. Some animals also migrate, usually with the seasons.
environment: all of the physical surroundings in a place, including land, water, animals, plants, and climate
natural resources: useful materials found in nature including water, vegetation, animals, and minerals
Using Natural Resources
survived by hunting caribou in summer and fish in winter

wore warm, hooded clothing from animal skin

googles made out of bone with slits to protect their eyes from the sun
houses: driftwood & animal skin
iglus in the winter
As they settled, Native Americans developed their own cultures.

culture: a people's way of life, including beliefs, customs, food, dwellings, and clothing

cultural region: an area in which a group of people share a similar culture and language
Using Natural Resources
In warmer climates, early Americans gathered plants and learned to raise crops : squash, corn, beans, chili pepers
Growing food allowed them to settle in one place instead of following animals
And this is how the first villages and towns started in America
Connection to Surroundings
pants, animals and other objects = part of their community
believe each part of nature had its own spirit.
beliefs were expressed in different customs- corn in ceremonies, thanks for the animals they killed
they did not feel like they could OWN the land but were deeply CONNECTED
Native Americans try not waste nature
Native Americans of the Northwest Coast
winters= cold but not icy
summers= cool


tools for each hunted creature: harpoons, nets
east= thick forest cover mountains
heavy rainfall most of the year
food= plenty, most from sea: clams, shellfish, seaweed, salmon (laid eggs in rivers in summer...salmon was dried to eat all year long
)
villages= on narrow beaches, bays, & islands. Used nature's wood & logs
Native Americans of the Northwest Coast
Houses = wedges and stone-headed sledge hammers, men cut boards & logs from trees
large sheets of cedar bark = protect from rain
bark=baskets, mats, rope, blankets, & water proof capes
decorateive shell buttons woven with irovy needles
tools= wooden wedges, bone drills, stone chisels, & stone knives
Full transcript