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Intercultural Communication

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Laura Rey

on 20 October 2014

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Transcript of Intercultural Communication

Josh Case
Zoe Johnstone
Andrew Bowers
Laura Rey
What is Culture?
“Predominating attitudes and behavior that characterize the functioning of a group, community or organization”
Eunson (2012)

Specific sub-cultures exist within the larger culture
What is Intercultural Communication?
Intercultural communication is communication between people of different cultures and ethnicities.
(Hall, 1959; Neuliep, 2000; Samovar & Porter, 2001)

Globalization means we deal with people from a number of cultures and backgrounds

Technological advancement lead to increased need to understand the ways other cultures communicate
Integrated Threat Theory of Prejudice
-
Symbolic threats
refer to the beliefs and values of the group which may be at risk. They primarily involve "perceived group differences in morals, values, standards, beliefs, and attitudes."
Intercultural communication
What is Culture?
What is Intercultural Communication?
Benefits
Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture
Integrated Threat Theory of Prejudice
Cultural Adaptation
Intercultural Intelligence
Cultural Adaptation
Intercultural Intelligence
Thank you
Linguistic Intelligence

• Ability to use words and languages
• Ability to speak another language
• Use Business English


Spatial Intelligence

• Ability to recognize and manipulate the space
• Awareness of nonverbal communication aspects
o Voice
o Touch
o Distance
o Eye contact
PETERSON 2004
APPLYING HOWARD GARDNER’S MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE THEORY
Interpersonal Intelligence

• Ability to understand and respond to others
• Involves understanding others motivations, intentions, desires, etc.,


Intrapersonal Intelligence

• Ability to understand one’s emotions
• Understanding one’s cultural systems, norms, and values

( Earley & Mosakowski, 2004)
(Adcock, 2014)
(Peterson, 2004)
Intercultural Intelligence can be developed through training programs, experience, and education.

(Tan and Chua, cited in Konanahalli, Oyedele, Spillane, Coates, Von Meding, & Ebohon , 2014)
The capacity to solve problems and adapt to a changing environment
INTELLIGENCE
INTERCULTURAL INTELLIGENCE
Also known as Cross-Cultural Intelligence (CQ)

“Ability to exhibit certain behaviors, including skills and qualities, which are culturally tuned to the attitudes and values of others.”
(Peterson, 2004)

The innate ability of a stranger to read someone’s unfamiliar and ambiguous gestures in a way a person’s compatriots and colleagues would, or even mirror them.
(Early & Mosakowski, 2004)

“A person’s capability to adapt effectively to new cultural contexts”
(Earley & Ang, 2003)
What is Culture?
What is Intercultural Communication?
Benefits
Hofstede's Dimensions of Culture
Integrated Threat Theory of Prejudice
Cultural Adaptation
Intercultural Intelligence
Summary
Definition:
"Cultural Adaptation is the long-term process of adjusting and finally feeling comfortable in a new environment". (Bennett & Hammer 1998)

Also known as Cross-Cultural Adaptation

Process
The process involves people who enter a culture and who, at some point, decide to or feel the need to adapt to the cultural context experience cultural adaptation in a positive way


Adapting to a particular environment is seen as a positive way of gaining a better cultural identity in the host country



Millions of people change homes each year
crossing cultural boundaries, these include-
Immigrants and refugees
governmental agency employees
Peace Corps volunteers
Military personnel
Exchange students
Benefits
-More open and understanding communication

-Garner positive and respectful relationships

-Avoid misunderstandings

-Increased productivity & efficiency

-Meetings and negotiations will run more smoothly

-Organizational structure & reward schemes can be tailored appropriately

-Gain competitive advantage
Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions
Masculinity and Femininity
Time Orientation
Individualism and Collectivism
Power Distance
Uncertainty Avoidance

Model acts as a loose guide and relies somewhat on generalized/stereotyped behaviors.
-
Intergroup anxiety
refers to the "uneasiness and awkwardness in the presence of out-group members because of uncertainty about how to behave towards them" (Riek, Mania, & Gaertner, 2006, p. 341).
-
Negative stereotypes
, like any other stereotypes, are based upon attributes the in-group believes the out-group to have (Kendall, 1999)
-
Realistic threats
are threats to the very existence of the in-group, threats to the political and economic power of the in-group, and threats to the physical or material well-being of the in-group of its members.
Integrated Threat Theory of Prejudice
Reference
Thank you
Adcock, P.K, 2014, ‘The longevity of multiple Intelligence theory in education’, Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 50-57.

Archee, R., Gurney, M & Mohan, T., 2013. Communicating as Professionals, Australia: Cengage Learning Australia.

Earley, P.C. and Mosakowski, E., cited in Konanahalli, A., Oyedele, L.O., Spillane, J., Coates, R., Von Meding, J., & Ebohon, J., 2014, ‘Cross-cultural intelligence (CQ): it's impact on british expatriate adjustment on international construction projects’, International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 423 – 448.

Earley, P.C. & Mosakowski. E., 2004, ‘Research edge: toward culture intelligence: turning cultural differences into a workplace advantage”, The Academy of Management Executive, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 151-157

Ehrenreich, S., 2010, ‘English as a Business Lingua Franca in a German Multinational Corporation: Meeting the Challenge’, Journal of Business Communication, vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 408 – 431.
Eunson, B., Communicating in the 21st Century, Australia: John Wiley & Sons Australia Ltd

Konanahalli, A., Oyedele, L.O., Spillane, J., Coates, R., Von Meding, J., & Ebohon, J., 2014, ‘Cross-cultural intelligence (CQ): it's impact on british expatriate adjustment on international construction projects’, International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 423 – 448.

Oskamp, S. (2000). Reducing prejudice and discrimination. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Peterson, B., 2004, Cultural Intelligence, Intercultural Press, Yarmouth.

Stephan, W. and Mealy, M. (2011). Intergroup threat theory. The encyclopedia of peace psychology.

Van Dyne, L., Ang, S. and Livermore, D., 2010, ‘Cultural intelligence: a pathway for leading in rapidly globalizing world’, in Hannum, K., McFeeters, B.B. and Booysen, L., Leadership Across Differences: Cases and perspectives, Pfeiffer, San Francisco, CA, pp. 131-138.
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