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Teri M nervous systems


Teri Mitton

on 9 April 2012

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Transcript of Teri M nervous systems

Nervous System
The functions of the Nervous System
Sensory Input
Mental Activity
Control of Muscles and Glands
Divisions of the Nervous System
The PNS (peripheral nervous system)
Sensory or afferent division
conducts action potentials from sensory receptors to the CNS
Motor or efferent division
conducts action potentials from the CNS to the effector organs
somatic motor system
transmits messages to the skeletal muscles
Autonomic motor system
transmits messages to the cardiac and smooth muscles
Action Potential:
a) Resting membrane potential (RMP) at -70mV. Na+ on outside and K+ on inside of cell
Types of nervous System Cells
Neurons: multipolar, bipolar, Unipolar
Astrocytes: provide structural support and contribute to the blood brain barrier
Ependymal cells: line the ventricles of the brain and produce cerebrospinal fluid
Microglia: Protect the CNS from infection and become phagocytic in response to imflammation
Oligodendrocytes: form the myelin sheaths in the CNS
Schwann Cells: form myelin sheaths in the PNS
Action Potentials
Crossing the Synapse
A synapse is the space between the terminal end of a dendrite and an effector organ.
Neurotransmitters are chemical signals that are released in order to send a message across the synapse
Types of Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine : Excitatory / Inhibitory
Alzheimer's Disease is accociated with a decrease in acetylcholine secreting neurons.
Norepinepherine: Exciatory/Inhibitory
Cocaine and amphetamines increase the release and block the reuptake on norepinepherine resulting in over stimulation of post synaptic neurons
Serotonin: Inhibitory
Involved with mood, anxiety, and sleep induction. Levels of serotonin are elevated in schizophrenia
Dopamine: Excitatory
Parkinson's disease results from destruction of dopamine secreting neurons. Drugs used to increase dopamine production induce vomiting and schizophrenia
Gamma-aminobutyric acid
GABA : inhibitory
Drugs that increase GABA function have been used to treat epilespy
Glycine: inhibitory
Glycine recptors are inhibited by the poison strychnine which causes Tetanus of the respiratory muscles and eventually death
Endorphins: inhibitory
The opiates morphine and heroin bind to endorphin receptors on presynaptic neurons and reduce pain by blocking the release of a neurotransmitter
Reflex Arc
Spinal Cord reflexes are signals that don't involve the brain they follow a signal pattern called a reflex arc.
b) As depolarization reaches threshold of -55mV, the action potential is triggered and Na+ rushes into cell. Membrane potential reaches +30mV on action potential
e) Return of ions (Na+ and K+) to their extracellular and intracellular sites by the sodium potassium (Na+K+) pump
c) Propagation of the action potential at 100 m/sec (which is 225 mph)

d) Repolarization occurs with K+ exiting the cell to return to -70mV RMP
The CNS (central nervous system)
Includes the Brain and spinal cord
Full transcript