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MESOPOTAMIA

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Enrique Jarina

on 20 February 2015

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Transcript of MESOPOTAMIA

SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF MESOPOTAMIA
GOVERNMENT AND LAW
GEOGRAPHY OF MESOPOTAMIA
MESOPOTAMIA CIVILIZATION
RELIGION
Mesopatamian belief system was polytheistic meaning having the belief of many gods and godesses instead of having just one.
By
Enrique Jarina

ECONOMY AND ARTS
SCIENTIFIC DISCOVERIES
STRUCTURE OF GOVERNMENT
SARGON II
KING NEBUCHADNEZZAR
HAMMURABI
HAMMURABI'S CODE
THE KING
THE SCRIBES
THE MERCHANT AND ARTISANS
THE COMMON PEOPLE
THE SLAVES
ANTHROPOMORPHIC
ORACLES
BABYLONIAN
ASSYRIAN
SUMERIAN
CHALDEAN
ZIGGURATS
RELIGIOUS BELIEFS
DEATH
EXAMPLES OF INDUSTRY
TYPES OF TRADE AND TRANSPORT
AGRICULTURAL ADVANCES (IRRIGATIONS/CANALS)
SHEKEL MINA AND TALENT
RELIEF CARVINGS
CUNEIFORM
EPIC OF GILGAMESH
FIGURINES
THE WHEEL
CHARIOTS
BRONZE AND IRON WEAPONS
THE SHOULDER YOKE (OXEN)
MATHEMATICS - Base of 60
CALENDAR (TYPE)
HANGING GARDENS OF BABYLON
Kish
Legend
- City
- Rivers (along with the blue lines)
MESOPOTAMIA
An oracle is a prophecy from a high priest or priestess or from the gods/godesses
Anthropormphic is a human characterestic that can be shown within anything. In ancient mesopotamia, they see their gods/godesses like humans.
ANU - The god of the highest heaven
http://www.bible-history.com/babylonia/BabyloniaBabylonian_Gods00000027.htm
MARDUK - The national god of the Babylonians

ISHTAR - Goddess of love
NERGAL - God of war and plague
http://ancientassyria.weebly.com/godsgoddesses.html
ARURU - mother goddess and midwife of the gods
NAMMU - Goddess of water
ENLIL - God of air and storms
http://history-world.org/sumerian_gods_and_goddesses.htm
INANNA - Goddess of Love and War
KI - Goddess of the Earth
GIBIL - God of Fire
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/28876/28876-h/files/17323/17323-h/v3b.htm
EA - God of the Waters
NINKASI - Goddess of beer
Ziggurats are multistory platforms. In ancient times, It is believed that it is a shrine and that priests would use the stairs to go up and perform rituals, recite hymns and prayers. It was believed that the height of the shrine would be easy for deities to descend and give blessings to the people.
The Mesopotamian Mythology was considered back then as their beliefs and explanation of how natural and supernatural phenomenon happens. The Mesopotamians were polytheistic meaning belief in many gods.
THE MESOPOTAMIANS BELIEVED...
World is a flat disk, and surrounded by a vast space.
The Sea is all around the earth.
The Universe had been born with the waters.
Source: "Religion." <i>Religion</i>. Web. 19 Feb. 2015. &lt;http://www.dl.ket.org/humanities/connections/class/ancient/mesopreligion.htm&gt;.
STORIES...
Sumerian word for universe is An-Ki
With the god An and goddess Ki
Their offspring was the god of air, Enlil and he is among one of the most powerful God.
Enlil's powers draw to Zeus of greek myth.
Pazuzu is the king of demons
Hundreds of other gods and goddesses were born from Sumerian gods.
Death was seen as a condition for humans and the gods were seen as immortals although some them dies b/c of another god.
Death was absent in creation texts although were told in tales. They believe that gods created death to prevent overpopulation.
The average lifespan around the era was forty years and if one dies before their time, it is seen as a curse from the gods.
The people believed that underworld is literally below the earth's ground.
AFTERLIFE
Believed the every dead person is in the underworld.
With morals, there is no particular judgement.
Everyone enters the underworld and that is what they belief.
It is believed that there can be consequences on how people are buried and how a person would bury someone.
It is to make sure to give a proper burial so the dead can remain in the underworld.
THE KING
The highest position of the Mesopotamia Hierarchy.
The King is responsible for creating laws.
Believed that they were gods on earth.
The head of the army.
THE SCRIBES
Belonged into an upper class and were well educated.
Scribes can obtain an occupation on the palace, army, government, merchants and etc.
Undergoes a training in order to be a scribe.
THE MERCHANTS AND ARTISANS
Belonged to upper class.
They make wealth for the growth of the city.
They were known to invent cuneiform to document trade deals.
Also invented calendars for tracking of trades.
THE COMMON PEOPLE(COMMONERS)
Belong to a labour lower class.
Makes up of 85% of the social pyramid.
Not educated.
Proffessions like pottery, fishing, farming and etc.
They had shelter but not rich although they were comfortable.
THE SLAVES
Lowest level of the Mesopotamian social pyramid.
No rights.
Worked for upper class people.
Slaves mostly worked in agricultural
Best known and most celebrated king of all Mesopotamian kings.
Ruled the Babylonian Empire from 1792-50 B.C.E.
When he started to rule, he had control of 50 square miles of territory.
As he conquered other city-states and his empire grew, he saw the need to unify the various groups he controlled.
He was concerned of keeping order in his kingdom so he made laws.
Hammurabi understood that making a law would keep his people in order.
He then sent the legal experts to gather all the laws.
Some of them were changed and some were eliminated before having it in final result of 282 list.
The code is comparable with the phrase "an eye for an eye" because it is a sense of justice based on revenge.
The code can punish among wealth, noble persons, lower class, commoners and slaves.
The Code covers all types of issues relating to farming, herding animals, owenership and etc.
A centralized state and had kingship.
Social Pyramid and unequal distribution with the low class people.
Has government bureaucracy for example takes were form in tithes paid by farmers.
There were civil servants like scribes.
An example of law was the Hammurabi Code.
• One of the greatest kings of Assyria that reigned around 722-705 BC
• With Sargon II reigning, he made a pact with the Babylonian king at that time.
• Gave freedom to all temples as well as people of the towns of Assur and Harran from taxes.
• Conquered parts of the Mesopotamia areas.
• Had campaigns and projects with the cities.
Reigned 604-562 BC
Babylon's most energetic king.
His armies destroyed Jerusalem.
He was ruthless and very smart at governing Babylon.
Babylon was magnificent around his time until Persians came.
Pottery - people had been using clay to make objects around 8000 BC. With the use of pottery, distinctive shapes have been reflected.
Banking - the concept of it started with the Mesopotamian Civilization.
Faience - artificial glazed material was made in Mesopotamia in 4000 B.C.
Mesopotamia wasn't rich with natural resources so in order for them to obtain the needs that only is required having the natural sources, they trade with neighboring countries.
Things like Grains and Oils and Textiles are used to trade with wine, timber, metals and etc.
Types of Transport for trading goods are:
Using Foot(walking)
Donkey
Gulf Boat
Raft
Coracle
River Boat
Cart
These were the types of money over the years of Mesopotamia civilization. The development of the coinage system did not develop until 700BCE. So the penalties after that was to measure weight of the coins.
Cuneiform is the first writing system that is invented in southern Mesopotamia
People in Mesopotamian civilization developed a form of writing to record things like trading and record down information.
Earliest writings were found with pictograms, and they were used for communicating related into crops and money.
Overtime, they developed a script.
The Mesopotamian scribes recorded daily events, astronomy, literature on tablets.
Cuneiform was used to write several languages.
http://www.mesopotamia.co.uk/writing/home_set.html
Canals and Irrigations ditches were built for directing the water to the fields for farming.
Regulators was then used so that it'll be easily accessible for farmers.
When the growing season hits, farmers were allowed with a certain amount of water.
When its the farmers turn to water his fields, the regulator is adjusted so that water coming from canal into an irrigation ditch (which is alongside the farm) for farmers to waters their field.
Relief Carvings are works of art in which a stone on the surface of a slab is partly chiseled to create images.
Details are made with hammer and chisel.
Final finishing is attained with the help of abrasives
These Carvings were made to commemorate important events around the era such as a military victory.
There are also carved for different reasons. For instance, propaganda and decoration and etc.
An Epic Poem from Ancient Mesopotamia
Dating back around Third Dynasty of Ur (2100BC)
Begins with 5 poems about King Giglamesh of Uruk.
Mesopotamians created figurines so that it represents their deity.
They believed that these figurines meant that god is unknown.
They used these figurines so that they have a picture of what possible the gods look like.
They also carved figurines for those important people that made impact on their history.
The early use of wheels were found in Mesopotamia dated around 3500 BC.
Wheels were first used for pottery.
They then were used in chariots around 3200 BC.
With wheels, they were big help for transporting trades and goods.
A light vehicle run with horses and wheels for battlefields usually.
They were used from Mesopotamia around 3000 BC
Early Sumerian Chariots were pulled with donkeys.
They were reigns which were in a ring from to back to the nose.
In 2900 BC, the bronze age began in Mesopotamia
They were one of the first people to create bronze for weapons.
An example of a bronze sword is the sickle sword of Mesopotamia.
The next material weapon was made of Iron.
Iron ore was abundant and it could be heated with high temperature.
Was also used for weaponry in Mesopotamia
Yokes were used for cows to help the farmer ploughing the farmer's field.
SHOULDER YOKE
The Yoke over the ox's shoulders were far more efficient because it allowed to give an exert pull.
The shoulder yoke is usually used around in Mesopotamia and the one on the left is usually used in Egypt.
It is called Babylonian Mathematics, it is practice in Mesopotamia
They were written in cuneiform script.
The numeral system was base of 60
It derives from modern day usage 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour and 360 degrees in a whole circle.
The Sumerians of mesopotamia were the first ones to create the 30 day lunar calendar.
They were priest-astronomers who observed the movement of stars.
During the Hammurabi Kingdom, the calendar was improved and this was called the Babylonian Calendar.
The Babylonian Calendar had 354 days/year.
Each year had 12 alternating months of 29 days and 30 days.
The calendar was missing 11 1/4 days so they added 2 months and 7 years every 19 days.
Hanging Gardens of Babylon was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.
There are no archaeological evidences about the garden but they were legends and texts about the hanging gardens
According to a legend, Nebuchadnezzar II built the gardens for his wife because the wife misses her homeland with hills and valley.
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