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The Periodic Table

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sam le

on 16 February 2014

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Transcript of The Periodic Table

The Periodic Table
made by Dmitri Mendeleev
It is table of the chemical elements that are arranged in order of their atomic number, by rows showing the periodicity
Elements with similar atomic structure appear in vertical columns
Metallic to non-metallic character across a period

• Also called
is the vertical column in the periodic table
• numbered in ascending order from 1 to 8 from the left column to the right column.
• The group number indicates the
number of valence electron
of an element under that column
Relationship between Group number, number of valency electrons and metallic/non-metallic character
Chlorine(Cl), bromine(Br) and iodine(I)
exist as separate diatomic molecules
As you go downwards, the reactivity decreases, density increases and the color gets deeper.
Chlorine(g) Bromine(l) Iodine(l) with Green, Red-brown and Black serially.
The halogen molecule is an oxidising agent and it needs an electron to complete its octet, therefore it will be reduced by electron gain to form a halide ion (reducing agent) and vice versa.
The halogens + metals -> Halides. Cl2(aq) + 2Br–(aq) ==> 2Cl–(aq) + Br2(aq)
Cl2(aq) + 2I–(aq) ==> 2Cl–(aq) + I2(aq). Br2(aq) + 2I–(aq) ==> 2Br–(aq) + I2(aq)

Trends in other Group
Form colored compounds
Tend to have high melting points, high densities.
Act as catalysts to speed up reactions.
Transition Metals
Noble gases

by: Sam Le & Rochelle Lapizar
Transition Elements
• Metallic character
as non-metallic character increases across a period from
left to right
because the number of valence electrons increases which means that it is harder for the element to lose electrons therefore increasing non-metallic character.

Change from Metallic to Non-Metallic Character across a period
the ability of an element to give away an electron
Metallic Character
refers to the ability of an element to gain electrons
Non-metallic Character
• high number of = greater non-metallic
valence electrons character
• low number of = greater metallic
valence electrons character
is under Group 6. This means that oxygen has

6 valence electrons.
The number of
valence electrons
of the elements equals the
number they are under.
number equals the
number of the shells
of the elements.
Properties of elements in GROUP 1
Properties of elements in GROUP 7
Iron in the
Haber Process
Vanadium Oxide in the Contact Process
No compounds of noble gas are found
Form only 1% of the gases in the atmosphere.
Have the full number of electrons possible in their outer shells (2 for Helium, 8 for the rests), therefore they are stable.
Exist as single atoms, (monoatomic).
Colorless and odorless (no smell),
Low melting and boiling points (they increase down the group)
used in high performance light bulbs
used in lighting
improve breathing for people with asthma, filling balloons
used as an
Elements in the same group have the similar chemical properties and physical properties, have the same number of electrons in their outershell.
The atomic size of an atom increases down the group (as the number of shells increases)
Elements become more metallic (ability to lose electrons increases), boiling points increase down a group.
In metal groups, the reactivity of the elements increases as you go down the group.
In the group of non-metals, the reactivity of the non-metals decreases down the group.
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